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Article

Long-Term Correlation between Water Deficit and Quality Markers in HydroSOStainable Almonds

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Department of Agro-Food Technology, Research Group “Food Quality and Safety, CSA”, Universidad Miguel Hernández de Elche (UMH), Escuela Politécnica Superior de Orihuela (EPSO), Carretera de Beniel, km 3.2, 03312 Orihuela, Spain
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Department of Plant Science and Microbiology, Research Group “Plant Production and Technology”, UMH, EPSO, Carretera de Beniel, km 3.2, 03312 Orihuela, Spain
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Departamento de Ciencias Agroforestales, ETSIA, Universidad de Sevilla, Carretera de Utrera, km 1, 41013 Sevilla, Spain
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Unidad Asociada al CSIC de Uso sostenible del suelo y el agua en la agricultura (US-IRNAS), Crta de Utrera, km 1, 41013 Sevilla, Spain
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BCC Innovation, Technological Center in Gastronomy, Juan Avelino Barriola 101, 20009 Donostia-San Sebastián, Spain
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Basque Culinary Center, Mondragon Unibersitatea, Juan Avelino Barriola 101, 20009 Donostia-San Sebastián, Spain
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Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Agronomy 2020, 10(10), 1470; https://doi.org/10.3390/agronomy10101470
Received: 22 August 2020 / Revised: 23 September 2020 / Accepted: 23 September 2020 / Published: 25 September 2020
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Optimizing Plant Water Use Efficiency for a Sustainable Environment)
Global warming enhances the rainfall and temperature irregularity, producing a collapse in water resources and generating an urgent need for hydro-sustainable thinking in agriculture. The aim of this study was to evaluate the correlation between the water stress of almond trees and quality parameters of fruits, after 3 years of experiments, with the objective of establishing quality markers necessary in the certification process of hydroSOStainable almonds. The results showed positive correlations among the stress integral (SI) and dry weight, color coordinates (L*, a* and b*), minerals (K, Fe, and Zn), organic acids (citric acid), sugars (sucrose, fructose, and total sugars), antioxidant activity, and fatty acids [linoleic acid, polyunsaturated (PUFA)/monounsaturated (MUFA) ratio, PUFA and SFA, among others]. As well as negative correlations of SI with water activity, weight (almond, kernel, and shell), kernel size, minerals (Ca and Mg), fatty acids (oleic acid, oleic/linoleic ratio, MUFA, and PUFA/SFA ratio), and sensory attributes (size, bitterness, astringency, benzaldehyde, and woody). Finally, this research helped to prove key quality parameters that can be used as makers of hydroSOStainable almonds. In addition, it was demonstrated that controlling water stress in almond trees by using deficit irrigation strategies can lead to appropriate yields, improve the product quality, and consequently, lead to a final added value. View Full-Text
Keywords: Prunus dulcis; Vairo; water stress; regulated deficit irrigation; sustained deficit irrigation; quality markers Prunus dulcis; Vairo; water stress; regulated deficit irrigation; sustained deficit irrigation; quality markers
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MDPI and ACS Style

Lipan, L.; Cano-Lamadrid, M.; Hernández, F.; Sendra, E.; Corell, M.; Vázquez-Araújo, L.; Moriana, A.; Carbonell-Barrachina, Á.A. Long-Term Correlation between Water Deficit and Quality Markers in HydroSOStainable Almonds. Agronomy 2020, 10, 1470. https://doi.org/10.3390/agronomy10101470

AMA Style

Lipan L, Cano-Lamadrid M, Hernández F, Sendra E, Corell M, Vázquez-Araújo L, Moriana A, Carbonell-Barrachina ÁA. Long-Term Correlation between Water Deficit and Quality Markers in HydroSOStainable Almonds. Agronomy. 2020; 10(10):1470. https://doi.org/10.3390/agronomy10101470

Chicago/Turabian Style

Lipan, Leontina, Marina Cano-Lamadrid, Francisca Hernández, Esther Sendra, Mireia Corell, Laura Vázquez-Araújo, Alfonso Moriana, and Ángel A. Carbonell-Barrachina 2020. "Long-Term Correlation between Water Deficit and Quality Markers in HydroSOStainable Almonds" Agronomy 10, no. 10: 1470. https://doi.org/10.3390/agronomy10101470

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