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Polymers 2016, 8(9), 316;

Microwave-Assisted Hydrothermal Synthesis of Cellulose/Hydroxyapatite Nanocomposites

Beijing Key Laboratory of Lignocellulosic Chemistry, College of Materials Science and Technology, Beijing Forestry University, Beijing 100083, China
Department of Chemistry-Ångström Laboratory, Uppsala University, Uppsala 75121, Sweden
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Walter Remo Caseri
Received: 11 July 2016 / Revised: 9 August 2016 / Accepted: 15 August 2016 / Published: 20 September 2016
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nanocomposites of Polymers and Inorganic Particles 2016)
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In this paper, we report a facile, rapid, and green strategy for the synthesis of cellulose/hydroxyapatite (HA) nanocomposites using an inorganic phosphorus source (sodium dihydrogen phosphate dihydrate (NaH2PO4·2H2O)), or organic phosphorus sources (adenosine 5′-triphosphate disodium salt (ATP), creatine phosphate disodium salt tetrahydrate (CP), or D-fructose 1,6-bisphosphate trisodium salt octahydrate (FBP)) through the microwave-assisted hydrothermal method. The effects of the phosphorus sources, heating time, and heating temperature on the phase, size, and morphology of the products were systematically investigated. The experimental results revealed that the phosphate sources played a critical role on the phase, size, and morphology of the minerals in the nanocomposites. For example, the pure HA was obtained by using NaH2PO4·2H2O as phosphorus source, while all the ATP, CP, and FBP led to the byproduct, calcite. The HA nanostructures with various morphologies (including nanorods, pseudo-cubic, pseudo-spherical, and nano-spherical particles) were obtained by varying the phosphorus sources or adjusting the reaction parameters. In addition, this strategy is surfactant-free, avoiding the post-treatment procedure and cost for the surfactant removal from the product. We believe that this work can be a guidance for the green synthesis of cellulose/HA nanocomposites in the future. View Full-Text
Keywords: cellulose; hydroxyapatite; nanocomposites; microwave-assisted hydrothermal cellulose; hydroxyapatite; nanocomposites; microwave-assisted hydrothermal

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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).

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Fu, L.-H.; Liu, Y.-J.; Ma, M.-G.; Zhang, X.-M.; Xue, Z.-M.; Zhu, J.-F. Microwave-Assisted Hydrothermal Synthesis of Cellulose/Hydroxyapatite Nanocomposites. Polymers 2016, 8, 316.

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