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Progress in the Valorization of Fruit and Vegetable Wastes: Active Packaging, Biocomposites, By-Products, and Innovative Technologies Used for Bioactive Compound Extraction

1
Department of Process and Food Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, University Putra Malaysia, Serdang 43400, Selangor, Malaysia
2
Laboratory of Halal Science Research, Halal Products Research Institute, Universiti Putra Malaysia, Serdang 43400, Selangor, Malaysia
3
Laboratory of Biopolymer and Derivatives, Institute of Tropical Forestry and Forest Products (INTROP), Universiti Putra Malaysia, Serdang 43400, Selangor, Malaysia
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editors: Domenico Acierno and Antonella Patti
Polymers 2021, 13(20), 3503; https://doi.org/10.3390/polym13203503
Received: 15 September 2021 / Revised: 6 October 2021 / Accepted: 8 October 2021 / Published: 12 October 2021
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Mechanical Performance of Sustainable Bio-Based Compounds)
According to the Food Wastage Footprint and Climate Change Report, about 15% of all fruits and 25% of all vegetables are wasted at the base of the food production chain. The significant losses and wastes in the fresh and processing industries is becoming a serious environmental issue, mainly due to the microbial degradation impacts. There has been a recent surge in research and innovation related to food, packaging, and pharmaceutical applications to address these problems. The underutilized wastes (seed, skin, rind, and pomace) potentially present good sources of valuable bioactive compounds, including functional nutrients, amylopectin, phytochemicals, vitamins, enzymes, dietary fibers, and oils. Fruit and vegetable wastes (FVW) are rich in nutrients and extra nutritional compounds that contribute to the development of animal feed, bioactive ingredients, and ethanol production. In the development of active packaging films, pectin and other biopolymers are commonly used. In addition, the most recent research studies dealing with FVW have enhanced the physical, mechanical, antioxidant, and antimicrobial properties of packaging and biocomposite systems. Innovative technologies that can be used for sensitive bioactive compound extraction and fortification will be crucial in valorizing FVW completely; thus, this article aims to report the progress made in terms of the valorization of FVW and to emphasize the applications of FVW in active packaging and biocomposites, their by-products, and the innovative technologies (both thermal and non-thermal) that can be used for bioactive compounds extraction. View Full-Text
Keywords: fruit waste; vegetable waste; waste valorization; bioactive compound; active packaging; biocomposites; by-product; extraction; thermal processing; non-thermal processing fruit waste; vegetable waste; waste valorization; bioactive compound; active packaging; biocomposites; by-product; extraction; thermal processing; non-thermal processing
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MDPI and ACS Style

Mohd Basri, M.S.; Abdul Karim Shah, N.N.; Sulaiman, A.; Mohamed Amin Tawakkal, I.S.; Mohd Nor, M.Z.; Ariffin, S.H.; Abdul Ghani, N.H.; Mohd Salleh, F.S. Progress in the Valorization of Fruit and Vegetable Wastes: Active Packaging, Biocomposites, By-Products, and Innovative Technologies Used for Bioactive Compound Extraction. Polymers 2021, 13, 3503. https://doi.org/10.3390/polym13203503

AMA Style

Mohd Basri MS, Abdul Karim Shah NN, Sulaiman A, Mohamed Amin Tawakkal IS, Mohd Nor MZ, Ariffin SH, Abdul Ghani NH, Mohd Salleh FS. Progress in the Valorization of Fruit and Vegetable Wastes: Active Packaging, Biocomposites, By-Products, and Innovative Technologies Used for Bioactive Compound Extraction. Polymers. 2021; 13(20):3503. https://doi.org/10.3390/polym13203503

Chicago/Turabian Style

Mohd Basri, Mohd S., Nor N. Abdul Karim Shah, Alifdalino Sulaiman, Intan S. Mohamed Amin Tawakkal, Mohd Z. Mohd Nor, Siti H. Ariffin, Nur H. Abdul Ghani, and Faiqa S. Mohd Salleh. 2021. "Progress in the Valorization of Fruit and Vegetable Wastes: Active Packaging, Biocomposites, By-Products, and Innovative Technologies Used for Bioactive Compound Extraction" Polymers 13, no. 20: 3503. https://doi.org/10.3390/polym13203503

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