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Article

Shape-Adaptive Metastructures with Variable Bandgap Regions by 4D Printing

1
Department of Engineering, School of Science and Technology, Nottingham Trent University, Nottingham NG11 8NS, UK
2
School of Mechanical Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, University of Tehran, Tehran 1417466191, Iran
3
School of Engineering, Deakin University, Geelong, VIC 3216, Australia
4
School of Engineering, University of Glasgow, Glasgow G12 8QQ, UK
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Polymers 2020, 12(3), 519; https://doi.org/10.3390/polym12030519
Received: 13 January 2020 / Revised: 14 February 2020 / Accepted: 24 February 2020 / Published: 1 March 2020
This article shows how four-dimensional (4D) printing technology can engineer adaptive metastructures that exploit resonating self-bending elements to filter vibrational and acoustic noises and change filtering ranges. Fused deposition modeling (FDM) is implemented to fabricate temperature-responsive shape-memory polymer (SMP) elements with self-bending features. Experiments are conducted to reveal how the speed of the 4D printer head can affect functionally graded prestrain regime, shape recovery and self-bending characteristics of the active elements. A 3D constitutive model, along with an in-house finite element (FE) method, is developed to replicate the shape recovery and self-bending of SMP beams 4D-printed at different speeds. Furthermore, a simple approach of prestrain modeling is introduced into the commercial FE software package to simulate material tailoring and self-bending mechanism. The accuracy of the straightforward FE approach is validated against experimental observations and computational results from the in-house FE MATLAB-based code. Two periodic architected temperature-sensitive metastructures with adaptive dynamical characteristics are proposed to use bandgap engineering to forbid specific frequencies from propagating through the material. The developed computational tool is finally implemented to numerically examine how bandgap size and frequency range can be controlled and broadened. It is found out that the size and frequency range of the bandgaps are linked to changes in the geometry of self-bending elements printed at different speeds. This research is likely to advance the state-of-the-art 4D printing and unlock potentials in the design of functional metastructures for a broad range of applications in acoustic and structural engineering, including sound wave filters and waveguides. View Full-Text
Keywords: 4D printing; metastructure; shape-memory polymers; wave propagation; finite element method; bandgap 4D printing; metastructure; shape-memory polymers; wave propagation; finite element method; bandgap
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MDPI and ACS Style

Noroozi, R.; Bodaghi, M.; Jafari, H.; Zolfagharian, A.; Fotouhi, M. Shape-Adaptive Metastructures with Variable Bandgap Regions by 4D Printing. Polymers 2020, 12, 519. https://doi.org/10.3390/polym12030519

AMA Style

Noroozi R, Bodaghi M, Jafari H, Zolfagharian A, Fotouhi M. Shape-Adaptive Metastructures with Variable Bandgap Regions by 4D Printing. Polymers. 2020; 12(3):519. https://doi.org/10.3390/polym12030519

Chicago/Turabian Style

Noroozi, Reza, Mahdi Bodaghi, Hamid Jafari, Ali Zolfagharian, and Mohammad Fotouhi. 2020. "Shape-Adaptive Metastructures with Variable Bandgap Regions by 4D Printing" Polymers 12, no. 3: 519. https://doi.org/10.3390/polym12030519

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