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Open AccessEditor’s ChoiceReview

Microscopic Techniques for the Analysis of Micro and Nanostructures of Biopolymers and Their Derivatives

1
Department of Nanomaterials in Natural Sciences, Institute for Nanomaterials, Advanced Technology and Innovation, Technical University of Liberec, 461 17 Liberec, Czech Republic
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IMT Lille Douai, Department of Polymers and Composites Technology and Mechanical Engineering (TPCIM), 941 rue Charles Bourseul, CS10838, F-59508 Douai, France
3
Regional Centre of Advanced Technologies and Materials, Department of Physical Chemistry, Faculty of Science, Palacký University in Olomouc, Šlechtitelů 27, 783 71 Olomouc, Czech Republic
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Polymers 2020, 12(3), 512; https://doi.org/10.3390/polym12030512
Received: 26 January 2020 / Revised: 21 February 2020 / Accepted: 24 February 2020 / Published: 27 February 2020
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Polymer Materials in Environmental Chemistry)
Natural biopolymers, a class of materials extracted from renewable sources, is garnering interest due to growing concerns over environmental safety; biopolymers have the advantage of biocompatibility and biodegradability, an imperative requirement. The synthesis of nanoparticles and nanofibers from biopolymers provides a green platform relative to the conventional methods that use hazardous chemicals. However, it is challenging to characterize these nanoparticles and fibers due to the variation in size, shape, and morphology. In order to evaluate these properties, microscopic techniques such as optical microscopy, atomic force microscopy (AFM), and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) are essential. With the advent of new biopolymer systems, it is necessary to obtain insights into the fundamental structures of these systems to determine their structural, physical, and morphological properties, which play a vital role in defining their performance and applications. Microscopic techniques perform a decisive role in revealing intricate details, which assists in the appraisal of microstructure, surface morphology, chemical composition, and interfacial properties. This review highlights the significance of various microscopic techniques incorporating the literature details that help characterize biopolymers and their derivatives. View Full-Text
Keywords: biopolymers; microstructures; nanostructures; surface morphology; filler dispersion; chemical composition; optical microscopy; scanning electron microscopy; transmission electron microscopy; atomic force microscopy biopolymers; microstructures; nanostructures; surface morphology; filler dispersion; chemical composition; optical microscopy; scanning electron microscopy; transmission electron microscopy; atomic force microscopy
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MDPI and ACS Style

Venkateshaiah, A.; Padil, V.V.T.; Nagalakshmaiah, M.; Waclawek, S.; Černík, M.; Varma, R.S. Microscopic Techniques for the Analysis of Micro and Nanostructures of Biopolymers and Their Derivatives. Polymers 2020, 12, 512. https://doi.org/10.3390/polym12030512

AMA Style

Venkateshaiah A, Padil VVT, Nagalakshmaiah M, Waclawek S, Černík M, Varma RS. Microscopic Techniques for the Analysis of Micro and Nanostructures of Biopolymers and Their Derivatives. Polymers. 2020; 12(3):512. https://doi.org/10.3390/polym12030512

Chicago/Turabian Style

Venkateshaiah, Abhilash; Padil, Vinod V.T.; Nagalakshmaiah, Malladi; Waclawek, Stanisław; Černík, Miroslav; Varma, Rajender S. 2020. "Microscopic Techniques for the Analysis of Micro and Nanostructures of Biopolymers and Their Derivatives" Polymers 12, no. 3: 512. https://doi.org/10.3390/polym12030512

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Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

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