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Toughening of Epoxy Resin: The Effect of Water Jet Milling on Worn Tire Rubber Particles

Department of Polymer Engineering, Faculty of Mechanical Engineering, Budapest University of Technology and Economics, Muegyetem rkp. 3., H-1111 Budapest, Hungary
MTA-BME Research Group for Composite Science and Technology, Muegyetem rkp. 3., H-1111 Budapest, Hungary
Faculty of Technical and Human Sciences, Sapientia Hungarian University of Transylvania, 540485 Târgu-Mureş, Op. 9., Cp. 4., Romania
Department of Chemical Engineering, Graduate School of Engineering, University of Hyogo, 8 Chome-2-1 Gakuen Nishimachi, Nishi Ward, Kobe 651-2103, Japan
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Polymers 2019, 11(3), 529;
Received: 22 January 2019 / Revised: 28 February 2019 / Accepted: 18 March 2019 / Published: 20 March 2019
In this work a cycloaliphatic amine-cured epoxy (EP) resin was modified by micron-scale rubber particles (RP). Nominal RP, in sizes of 200 and 600 µm respectively, were produced using worn truck tires and ultra-high-pressure water jet cutting. The RP were dispersed into the EP resin using different mixing techniques (mechanical, magnetic, and ultrasonic stirring) prior to the introduction of the amine hardener. The dispersion of the RP was studied using optical light microscopy. A longer mixing time reduced the mean size of the particles in the EP compounds. Static (tensile and flexural), dynamic (unnotched Charpy impact), and fracture mechanical (fracture toughness and strain-energy release rate) properties were determined. The incorporation of the RP decreased the stiffness and strength values of the modified EPs. In contrast, the irregular and rough surface of the RP resulted in improved toughness. The fracture toughness and strain-energy release rate were enhanced up to 18% owing to the incorporation of 1% by weight (wt%) RP. This was traced to the effects of crack pinning and crack deflection. Considerably higher improvement (i.e., up to 130%) was found for the unnotched Charpy impact energy. This was attributed to multiple cracking associated with RP-bridging prior to final fracture. View Full-Text
Keywords: epoxy; toughening; ground tire rubber; rubber particle epoxy; toughening; ground tire rubber; rubber particle
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Tamas-Benyei, P.; Bitay, E.; Kishi, H.; Matsuda, S.; Czigany, T. Toughening of Epoxy Resin: The Effect of Water Jet Milling on Worn Tire Rubber Particles. Polymers 2019, 11, 529.

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