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Towards High-performance Materials Based on Carbohydrate-Derived Polyamide Blends

Faculty of Science and Engineering, Biobased Materials, Maastricht University, P.O. Box 616, 6200 MD Maastricht, The Netherlands
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Polymers 2019, 11(3), 413;
Received: 4 February 2019 / Revised: 22 February 2019 / Accepted: 24 February 2019 / Published: 4 March 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Recent Advances in Bioplastics)
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A bio-derived monomer called 2,3:4,5-di-O-isopropylidene-galactarate acid/ester (GalXMe) has great potential in polymer production. The unique properties of this molecule, such as its rigidity and bulkiness, contribute to the good thermal properties and appealing transparency of the material. The main problem, however, is that like other biobased materials, the polymers derived thereof are very brittle. In this study, we report on the melt blending of GalXMe polyamides (PAs) with different commercial PA grades using extrusion as well as blend characterization. Biobased PA blends showed limited to no miscibility with other polyamides. However, their incorporation resulted in strong materials with high Young moduli. The increase in modulus of the prepared GalXMe blends with commercial PAs ranged from up to 75% for blends with aliphatic polyamide composed of 1,6-diaminohexane and 1,12-dodecanedioic acid PA(6,12) to up to 82% for blends with cycloaliphatic polyamide composed of 4,4′-methylenebis(cyclohexylamine) and 1,12-dodecanedioic acid PA(PACM,12). Investigation into the mechanism of blending revealed that for some polyamides a transamidation reaction improved the blend compatibility. The thermal stability of the biobased PAs depended on which diamine was used. Polymers with aliphatic/aromatic or alicyclic diamines showed no degradation, whereas with fully aromatic diamines such as p-phenylenediamine, some degradation processes were observed under extrusion conditions (260/270 °C). View Full-Text
Keywords: biobased polyamides; blending; high Tg; mechanical properties biobased polyamides; blending; high Tg; mechanical properties

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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).

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Wróblewska, A.A.; Leoné, N.; De Wildeman, S.M.A.; Bernaerts, K.V. Towards High-performance Materials Based on Carbohydrate-Derived Polyamide Blends. Polymers 2019, 11, 413.

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