Biosynthetic Pathway and Genes of Chitin/Chitosan-Like Bioflocculant in the Genus Citrobacter
AbstractChitin/chitosan, one of the most abundant polysaccharides in nature, is industrially produced as a powder or flake form from the exoskeletons of crustaceans such as crabs and shrimps. Intriguingly, many bacterial strains in the genus Citrobacter secrete a soluble chitin/chitosan-like polysaccharide into the culture medium during growth in acetate. Because this polysaccharide shows strong flocculation activity for suspended solids in water, it can be used as a bioflocculant (BF). The BF synthetic pathway of C. freundii IFO 13545 is expected from known bacterial metabolic pathways to be as follows: acetate is metabolized in the TCA cycle and the glyoxylate shunt via acetyl-CoA. Next, fructose 6-phosphate is generated from the intermediates of the TCA cycle through gluconeogenesis and enters into the hexosamine synthetic pathway to form UDP-N-acetylglucosamine, which is used as a direct precursor to extend the BF polysaccharide chain. We conducted the draft genome sequencing of IFO 13545 and identified all of the candidate genes corresponding to the enzymes in this pathway in the 5420-kb genome sequence. Disruption of the genes encoding acetyl-CoA synthetase and isocitrate lyase by homologous recombination resulted in little or no growth on acetate, indicating that the cell growth depends on acetate assimilation via the glyoxylate shunt. Disruption of the gene encoding glucosamine 6-phosphate synthase, a key enzyme for the hexosamine synthetic pathway, caused a significant decrease in flocculation activity, demonstrating that this pathway is primarily used for the BF biosynthesis. A gene cluster necessary for the polymerization and secretion of BF, named bfpABCD, was also identified for the first time. In addition, quantitative RT-PCR analysis of several key genes in the expected pathway was conducted to know their expression in acetate assimilation and BF biosynthesis. Based on the data obtained in this study, an overview of the BF synthetic pathway is discussed. View Full-Text
- Supplementary File 1:
Supplementary (PDF, 700 KB)
Share & Cite This Article
Takeo, M.; Kimura, K.; Mayilraj, S.; Inoue, T.; Tada, S.; Miyamoto, K.; Kashiwa, M.; Ikemoto, K.; Baranwal, P.; Kato, D.; Negoro, S. Biosynthetic Pathway and Genes of Chitin/Chitosan-Like Bioflocculant in the Genus Citrobacter. Polymers 2018, 10, 237.
Takeo M, Kimura K, Mayilraj S, Inoue T, Tada S, Miyamoto K, Kashiwa M, Ikemoto K, Baranwal P, Kato D, Negoro S. Biosynthetic Pathway and Genes of Chitin/Chitosan-Like Bioflocculant in the Genus Citrobacter. Polymers. 2018; 10(3):237.Chicago/Turabian Style
Takeo, Masahiro; Kimura, Kazuyuki; Mayilraj, Shanmugam; Inoue, Takuya; Tada, Shohei; Miyamoto, Kouki; Kashiwa, Masami; Ikemoto, Keishi; Baranwal, Priyanka; Kato, Daiichiro; Negoro, Seiji. 2018. "Biosynthetic Pathway and Genes of Chitin/Chitosan-Like Bioflocculant in the Genus Citrobacter." Polymers 10, no. 3: 237.
Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.