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Historical Perspective on Diffraction Line-Profile Analyses for Crystals Containing Defect Clusters

Materials Science and Technology Division, Emeritus, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, TN 37831, USA
Crystals 2019, 9(5), 257; https://doi.org/10.3390/cryst9050257
Received: 6 April 2019 / Revised: 29 April 2019 / Accepted: 30 April 2019 / Published: 17 May 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue X-ray and neutron Line Profile Analysis of Microstructures)
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Abstract

Deviations of crystal diffraction line profiles from those predicted by the dynamical theory of diffraction for perfect crystals provide a window into the microscopic distributions of defects within non-perfect crystals. This overview provides a perspective on key theoretical, computational, and experimental developments associated with the analysis of diffraction line profiles for crystals containing statistical distributions of point defect clusters, e.g., dislocation loops, precipitates, and stacking fault tetrahedra. Pivotal theoretical developments beginning in the 1940s are recalled and discussed in terms of their impact on the direction of theoretical and experimental investigations of lattice defects in the 1960s, the 1970s, and beyond, as both experimental and computational capabilities advanced. The evolution of experimental measurements and analysis techniques, as stimulated by theoretical and computational progress in understanding the distortion fields surrounding defect clusters, is discussed. In particular, consideration is given to determining dislocation loop densities and separate size distributions for vacancy and interstitial type loops, and to the internal strain and size distributions for coherent precipitates. View Full-Text
Keywords: diffraction line profiles; diffuse scattering; dislocation loops; precipitates; stacking fault tetrahedra; Huang scattering; Stokes–Wilson scattering; asymptotic scattering diffraction line profiles; diffuse scattering; dislocation loops; precipitates; stacking fault tetrahedra; Huang scattering; Stokes–Wilson scattering; asymptotic scattering
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Larson, B.C. Historical Perspective on Diffraction Line-Profile Analyses for Crystals Containing Defect Clusters. Crystals 2019, 9, 257.

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