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Open AccessArticle

One-Step Removal of Calcium, Magnesium, and Nickel in Desalination by Alcaligenes aquatilis via Biomineralization

by Yaohua Dong 1,2, Zhangwei Guo 1,*, Na Guo 1 and Tao Liu 1
1
College of Ocean Science and Engineering, Institute of Marine Materials Science and Engineering, Shanghai Maritime University, Shanghai 201306, China
2
School of Mechanical Engineering, Shanghai Jiaotong University, Shanghai 200240, China
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Crystals 2019, 9(12), 633; https://doi.org/10.3390/cryst9120633
Received: 12 October 2019 / Revised: 16 November 2019 / Accepted: 26 November 2019 / Published: 28 November 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Crystal Growth in Environmental Protection, Remediation, and Health)
In desalination, a high level of calcium (Ca) and magnesium (Mg) ions in seawater can cause scale deposition on the reverse osmosis membranes and water treatment systems. This process can significantly affect the efficiency of desalination. In addition, heavy metals in seawater affect human health. Therefore, Alcaligenes aquatilis from seawater was used to remove Ca, Mg, and nickel (Ni) by microbial-induced carbonate precipitation (MICP). The purification system was then analyzed by ionic analysis and surface characterization. This study shows that the bacteria can utilize amino acids to produce carbonate and form precipitates with a high removal rate. MICP via A. aquatilis removed 91.8%, 68.5%, and 92.2% of the initial soluble Ca, Mg, and Ni, respectively. Furthermore, A. aquatilis can remove ammonium after the MICP process under oxygen-rich conditions. Therefore, we provide interesting insight into the use of Alcaligenes (in the absence of urea) to improve the seawater quality in the process of desalination.
Keywords: Alcaligenes aquatilis; MICP; desalination; calcium; magnesium; nickel Alcaligenes aquatilis; MICP; desalination; calcium; magnesium; nickel
MDPI and ACS Style

Dong, Y.; Guo, Z.; Guo, N.; Liu, T. One-Step Removal of Calcium, Magnesium, and Nickel in Desalination by Alcaligenes aquatilis via Biomineralization. Crystals 2019, 9, 633.

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