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Amorphous Calcium Phosphate Formation and Aggregation Process Revealed by Light Scattering Techniques

1
Division of Physical Chemistry, Ruđer Bošković Institute, Bijenička cesta 54, 10000 Zagreb, Croatia
2
Center for Marine Research, Ruđer Bošković Institute, Giordano Pagliaga 5, 5210 Rovinj, Croatia
3
Division of Materials Chemistry, Ruđer Bošković Institute, Bijenička cesta 54, 10000 Zagreb, Croatia
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Crystals 2018, 8(6), 254; https://doi.org/10.3390/cryst8060254
Received: 30 May 2018 / Revised: 8 June 2018 / Accepted: 15 June 2018 / Published: 17 June 2018
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Biomimetic Growth of Calcium Phosphate Crystals)
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Abstract

Amorphous calcium phosphate (ACP) attracts attention as a precursor of crystalline calcium phosphates (CaPs) formation in vitro and in vivo as well as due to its excellent biological properties. Its formation can be considered to be an aggregation process. Although aggregation of ACP is of interest for both gaining a fundamental understanding of biominerals formation and in the synthesis of novel materials, it has still not been investigated in detail. In this work, the ACP aggregation was followed by two widely applied techniques suitable for following nanoparticles aggregation in general: dynamic light scattering (DLS) and laser diffraction (LD). In addition, the ACP formation was followed by potentiometric measurements and formed precipitates were characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), powder X-ray diffraction (PXRD), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), and atomic force microscopy (AFM). The results showed that aggregation of ACP particles is a process which from the earliest stages simultaneously takes place at wide length scales, from nanometers to micrometers, leading to a highly polydisperse precipitation system, with polydispersity and vol. % of larger aggregates increasing with concentration. Obtained results provide insight into developing a way of regulating ACP and consequently CaP formation by controlling aggregation on the scale of interest. View Full-Text
Keywords: amorphous calcium phosphate; dynamic light scattering; laser diffraction; aggregation amorphous calcium phosphate; dynamic light scattering; laser diffraction; aggregation
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).

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Čadež, V.; Erceg, I.; Selmani, A.; Domazet Jurašin, D.; Šegota, S.; Lyons, D.M.; Kralj, D.; Sikirić, M.D. Amorphous Calcium Phosphate Formation and Aggregation Process Revealed by Light Scattering Techniques. Crystals 2018, 8, 254.

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