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Open AccessFeature PaperArticle

Gas Source Techniques for Molecular Beam Epitaxy of Highly Mismatched Ge Alloys

Department of Electrical Engineering, University of Notre Dame, Notre Dame, IN 46556, USA
Department of Chemistry, Syracuse University, Syracuse, NY 13244, USA
Rigetti Quantum Computing, 775 Heinz Avenue, Berkeley, CA 94710, USA
Faculty of Fundamental Problems of Technology, Wroclaw University of Science and Technology, Wybrzeze Wyspianskiego 27, 50-370 Wroclaw, Poland
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Paul J. Simmonds
Crystals 2016, 6(12), 159;
Received: 21 October 2016 / Revised: 19 November 2016 / Accepted: 21 November 2016 / Published: 2 December 2016
Ge and its alloys are attractive candidates for a laser compatible with silicon integrated circuits. Dilute germanium carbide (Ge1−xCx) offers a particularly interesting prospect. By using a precursor gas with a Ge4C core, C can be preferentially incorporated in substitutional sites, suppressing interstitial and C cluster defects. We present a method of reproducible and upscalable gas synthesis of tetrakis(germyl)methane, or (H3Ge)4C, followed by the design of a hybrid gas/solid-source molecular beam epitaxy system and subsequent growth of defect-free Ge1−xCx by molecular beam epitaxy (MBE). Secondary ion mass spectroscopy, transmission electron microscopy and contactless electroreflectance confirm the presence of carbon with very high crystal quality resulting in a decrease in the direct bandgap energy. This technique has broad applicability to growth of highly mismatched alloys by MBE. View Full-Text
Keywords: germanium; germanium carbide; molecular beam epitaxy germanium; germanium carbide; molecular beam epitaxy
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MDPI and ACS Style

Stephenson, C.A.; Gillett-Kunnath, M.; O’Brien, W.A.; Kudrawiec, R.; Wistey, M.A. Gas Source Techniques for Molecular Beam Epitaxy of Highly Mismatched Ge Alloys. Crystals 2016, 6, 159.

AMA Style

Stephenson CA, Gillett-Kunnath M, O’Brien WA, Kudrawiec R, Wistey MA. Gas Source Techniques for Molecular Beam Epitaxy of Highly Mismatched Ge Alloys. Crystals. 2016; 6(12):159.

Chicago/Turabian Style

Stephenson, Chad A.; Gillett-Kunnath, Miriam; O’Brien, William A.; Kudrawiec, Robert; Wistey, Mark A. 2016. "Gas Source Techniques for Molecular Beam Epitaxy of Highly Mismatched Ge Alloys" Crystals 6, no. 12: 159.

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