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Open AccessArticle

Formation Mechanism of Porous Cu3Sn Intermetallic Compounds by High Current Stressing at High Temperatures in Low-Bump-Height Solder Joints

1
Department of Materials Science and Engineering, National Chiao Tung University, Hsinchu 30010, Taiwan
2
Department of Materials Science and Engineering, University of California at Los Angeles, Los Angeles, CA 90095-1595, USA
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Duc Nguyen-Manh
Crystals 2016, 6(1), 12; https://doi.org/10.3390/cryst6010012
Received: 22 November 2015 / Revised: 4 January 2016 / Accepted: 11 January 2016 / Published: 16 January 2016
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Intermetallics)
Electromigration tests of SnAg solder bump samples with 15 μm bump height and Cu under-bump-metallization (UBM) were performed. The test conditions were 1.45 × 104 A/cm2 at 185 °C and 1.20 × 104 A/cm2 at 0 °C. A porous Cu3Sn intermetallic compound (IMC) structure was observed to form within the bumps after several hundred hours of current stressing. In direct comparison, annealing alone at 185 °C will take more than 1000 h for porous Cu3Sn to form, and it will not form at 170 °C even after 2000 h. Here we propose a mechanism to explain the formation of this porous structure assisted by electromigration. The results show that the SnAg bump with low bump height will become porous-type Cu3Sn when stressing with high current density and high temperature. Polarity effects on porous Cu3Sn formation is discussed. View Full-Text
Keywords: intermetallic compounds; porous Cu3Sn; electromigration; side wall reaction intermetallic compounds; porous Cu3Sn; electromigration; side wall reaction
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MDPI and ACS Style

Lin, J.-A.; Lin, C.-K.; Liu, C.-M.; Huang, Y.-S.; Chen, C.; Chu, D.T.; Tu, K.-N. Formation Mechanism of Porous Cu3Sn Intermetallic Compounds by High Current Stressing at High Temperatures in Low-Bump-Height Solder Joints. Crystals 2016, 6, 12.

AMA Style

Lin J-A, Lin C-K, Liu C-M, Huang Y-S, Chen C, Chu DT, Tu K-N. Formation Mechanism of Porous Cu3Sn Intermetallic Compounds by High Current Stressing at High Temperatures in Low-Bump-Height Solder Joints. Crystals. 2016; 6(1):12.

Chicago/Turabian Style

Lin, Jie-An; Lin, Chung-Kuang; Liu, Chen-Min; Huang, Yi-Sa; Chen, Chih; Chu, David T.; Tu, King-Ning. 2016. "Formation Mechanism of Porous Cu3Sn Intermetallic Compounds by High Current Stressing at High Temperatures in Low-Bump-Height Solder Joints" Crystals 6, no. 1: 12.

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