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Article

Light Extraction Enhancement Techniques for Inorganic Scintillators

1
Advanced Quantum Architecture Lab (AQUA), École Polytechnique Fédérale de Lausanne (EPFL), 2002 Neuchâtel, Switzerland
2
NAPA-Technologies, 74160 Archamps, France
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Laboratoire Lumière, Nanomatériaux et Nanotechnologie, CNRS ERL 7004, Université de Technologie de Troyes, 12 rue Marie Curie, 10004 Troyes CEDEX, France
4
Photovoltaics and Thin Films Electronics Laboratories (PV-LAB), École Polytechnique Fédérale de Lausanne (EPFL), 2002 Neuchâtel, Switzerland
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Shujun Zhang
Crystals 2021, 11(4), 362; https://doi.org/10.3390/cryst11040362
Received: 3 March 2021 / Revised: 22 March 2021 / Accepted: 25 March 2021 / Published: 30 March 2021
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Scintillator & Phosphor Materials)
Scintillators play a key role in the detection chain of several applications which rely on the use of ionizing radiation, and it is often mandatory to extract and detect the generated scintillation light as efficiently as possible. Typical inorganic scintillators do however feature a high index of refraction, which impacts light extraction efficiency in a negative way. Furthermore, several applications such as preclinical Positron Emission Tomography (PET) rely on pixelated scintillators with small pitch. In this case, applying reflectors on the crystal pixel surface, as done conventionally, can have a dramatic impact of the packing fraction and thus the overall system sensitivity. This paper presents a study on light extraction techniques, as well as combinations thereof, for two of the most used inorganic scintillators (LYSO and BGO). Novel approaches, employing Distributed Bragg Reflectors (DBRs), metal coatings, and a modified Photonic Crystal (PhC) structure, are described in detail and compared with commonly used techniques. The nanostructure of the PhC is surrounded by a hybrid organic/inorganic silica sol-gel buffer layer which ensures robustness while maintaining its performance unchanged. We observed in particular a maximum light gain of about 41% on light extraction and 21% on energy resolution for BGO, a scintillator which has gained interest in the recent past due to its prompt Cherenkov component and lower cost. View Full-Text
Keywords: coating; light extraction; nanostructure; optical interface; packing fraction; PET; photonic crystals; radioactive source; scintillators; thin films coating; light extraction; nanostructure; optical interface; packing fraction; PET; photonic crystals; radioactive source; scintillators; thin films
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MDPI and ACS Style

Gramuglia, F.; Frasca, S.; Ripiccini, E.; Venialgo, E.; Gâté, V.; Kadiri, H.; Descharmes, N.; Turover, D.; Charbon, E.; Bruschini, C. Light Extraction Enhancement Techniques for Inorganic Scintillators. Crystals 2021, 11, 362. https://doi.org/10.3390/cryst11040362

AMA Style

Gramuglia F, Frasca S, Ripiccini E, Venialgo E, Gâté V, Kadiri H, Descharmes N, Turover D, Charbon E, Bruschini C. Light Extraction Enhancement Techniques for Inorganic Scintillators. Crystals. 2021; 11(4):362. https://doi.org/10.3390/cryst11040362

Chicago/Turabian Style

Gramuglia, Francesco, Simone Frasca, Emanuele Ripiccini, Esteban Venialgo, Valentin Gâté, Hind Kadiri, Nicolas Descharmes, Daniel Turover, Edoardo Charbon, and Claudio Bruschini. 2021. "Light Extraction Enhancement Techniques for Inorganic Scintillators" Crystals 11, no. 4: 362. https://doi.org/10.3390/cryst11040362

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