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Raman Scattering: From Structural Biology to Medical Applications

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Research Center for Molecular Mechanisms of Aging and Age-Related Diseases, Moscow Institute of Physics and Technology, 141700 Dolgoprudny, Russia
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Institute of Crystallography, RWTH Aachen University, 52066 Aachen, Germany
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Biophysics Department, Biological Faculty, Moscow State University, 119234 Moscow, Russia
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Institute of Complex Systems (ICS), ICS-6: Structural Biochemistry, Research Centre Jülich, 52425 Jülich, Germany
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Joint Institute for Nuclear Research, 141980 Dubna, Russia
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JuStruct: Jülich Center for Structural Biology, Forschungszentrum Jülich, 52425 Jülich, Germany
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Institute of Physics of the Czech Academy of Sciences, 18221 Prague, Czech Republic
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Department of Biomedical Sciences, Faculty of Health and Medical Sciences, University of Copenhagen, 2200 Copenhagen, Denmark
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Institut de Biologie Structurale Jean-Pierre Ebel, Université Grenoble Alpes—Commissariat à l’Energie Atomique et aux Energies Alternatives—CNRS, 38044 Grenoble, France
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Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Crystals 2020, 10(1), 38; https://doi.org/10.3390/cryst10010038
Received: 9 December 2019 / Revised: 9 January 2020 / Accepted: 10 January 2020 / Published: 15 January 2020
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Raman Spectroscopy of Crystals)
This is a review of relevant Raman spectroscopy (RS) techniques and their use in structural biology, biophysics, cells, and tissues imaging towards development of various medical diagnostic tools, drug design, and other medical applications. Classical and contemporary structural studies of different water-soluble and membrane proteins, DNA, RNA, and their interactions and behavior in different systems were analyzed in terms of applicability of RS techniques and their complementarity to other corresponding methods. We show that RS is a powerful method that links the fundamental structural biology and its medical applications in cancer, cardiovascular, neurodegenerative, atherosclerotic, and other diseases. In particular, the key roles of RS in modern technologies of structure-based drug design are the detection and imaging of membrane protein microcrystals with the help of coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering (CARS), which would help to further the development of protein structural crystallography and would result in a number of novel high-resolution structures of membrane proteins—drug targets; and, structural studies of photoactive membrane proteins (rhodopsins, photoreceptors, etc.) for the development of new optogenetic tools. Physical background and biomedical applications of spontaneous, stimulated, resonant, and surface- and tip-enhanced RS are also discussed. All of these techniques have been extensively developed during recent several decades. A number of interesting applications of CARS, resonant, and surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy methods are also discussed. View Full-Text
Keywords: Raman scattering; SERS; biophysics; structural biology; DNA; cancer; cell imaging; medical applications; hemoproteins; photoactive proteins Raman scattering; SERS; biophysics; structural biology; DNA; cancer; cell imaging; medical applications; hemoproteins; photoactive proteins
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Vlasov, A.V.; Maliar, N.L.; Bazhenov, S.V.; Nikelshparg, E.I.; Brazhe, N.A.; Vlasova, A.D.; Osipov, S.D.; Sudarev, V.V.; Ryzhykau, Y.L.; Bogorodskiy, A.O.; Zinovev, E.V.; Rogachev, A.V.; Manukhov, I.V.; Borshchevskiy, V.I.; Kuklin, A.I.; Pokorný, J.; Sosnovtseva, O.; Maksimov, G.V.; Gordeliy, V.I. Raman Scattering: From Structural Biology to Medical Applications. Crystals 2020, 10, 38.

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