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Photocatalytic Degradation of Profenofos and Triazophos Residues in the Chinese Cabbage, Brassica chinensis, Using Ce-Doped TiO2

College of Plant Protection, Hunan Agricultural University, Changsha 410128, China
Department of Entomology, University of Kentucky, Lexington, KY 40546-0091, USA
Institute of Biotechnology Research, Hunan Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Changsha 410125, China
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Catalysts 2019, 9(3), 294;
Received: 24 January 2019 / Revised: 14 March 2019 / Accepted: 15 March 2019 / Published: 22 March 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue State-of-the-Art Photocatalytical Technology in North America)
PDF [1659 KB, uploaded 22 March 2019]


Pesticides have revolutionized the modern day of agriculture and substantially reduced crop losses. Synthetic pesticides pose a potential risk to the ecosystem and to the non-target organisms due to their persistency and bioaccumulation in the environment. In recent years, a light-mediated advanced oxidation processes (AOPs) has been adopted to resolve pesticide residue issues in the field. Among the current available semiconductors, titanium dioxide (TiO2) is one of the most promising photocatalysts. In this study, we investigated the photocatalytic degradation of profenofos and triazophos residues in Chinese cabbage, Brassica chinensis, using a Cerium-doped nano semiconductor TiO2 (TiO2/Ce) under the field conditions. The results showed that the degradation efficiency of these organophosphate pesticides in B. chinensis was significantly enhanced in the presence of TiO2/Ce. Specifically, the reactive oxygen species (ROS) contents were significantly increased in B. chinensis with TiO2/Ce treatment, accelerating the degradation of profenofos and triazophos. Ultra-performance liquid chromatography–mass spectroscopy (UPLC-MS) analysis detected 4-bromo-2-chlorophenol and 1-phenyl-3-hydroxy-1,2,4-triazole, the major photodegradation byproducts of profenofos and triazophos, respectively. To better understand the relationship between photodegradation and the molecular structure of these organophosphate pesticides, we investigated the spatial configuration, the bond length and Mulliken atomic charge using quantum chemistry. Ab initio analysis suggests that the bonds connected by P atom of profenofos/triazophos are the initiation cleavage site for photocatalytic degradation in B. chinensis. View Full-Text
Keywords: profenofos; triazophos; photocatalysis; TiO2/Ce; quantum chemistry profenofos; triazophos; photocatalysis; TiO2/Ce; quantum chemistry

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Liu, X.; Zhan, Y.; Zhang, Z.; Pan, L.; Hu, L.; Liu, K.; Zhou, X.; Bai, L. Photocatalytic Degradation of Profenofos and Triazophos Residues in the Chinese Cabbage, Brassica chinensis, Using Ce-Doped TiO2. Catalysts 2019, 9, 294.

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