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Article

Continuous-Flow Hydrogenation of Methyl Levulinate Promoted by Zr-Based Mesoporous Materials

1
Departamento de Química Orgánica Universidad de Córdoba, Edificio Marie Curie (C 3), Campus de Rabanales, Ctra Nnal IV-A, Km 396, E14014 Cordoba, Spain
2
Peoples Friendship University of Russia (RUDN University), 6 Miklukho-Maklaya str., 117198 Moscow, Russia
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Catalysts 2019, 9(2), 142; https://doi.org/10.3390/catal9020142
Received: 3 December 2018 / Revised: 27 December 2018 / Accepted: 2 January 2019 / Published: 2 February 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Catalytic Methods in Flow Chemistry)
Several Zr-based materials, including ZrO2 and Zr-SBA-15, with different silicon/zirconium molar ratios, and ZrO2/Si-SBA-15 (where SBA-15 stands for Santa Barbara Amorphous material no. 15), have been prepared as hydrogenation catalysts. The materials were characterized using different characterization techniques including X-ray diffraction (XRD), N2 porosimetry, scanning electron microscopy (SEM/EDX), diffuse reflectance infrared Fourier transform spectroscopy (DRIFT) of pyridine adsorption and the pulsed chromatographic method using pyridine and 2,6-dimethylpyridine as probe molecules, mainly, have been employed for the characterization of the structural, textural, and acidic properties of the synthesized materials, respectively. The catalysts have been evaluated in the hydrogenation reaction of methyl levulinate using 2-propanol as hydrogen donor solvent. The reaction conditions were investigated and stablished at 30 bar system pressure with a reaction temperature of 200 °C using around 0.1 g of catalyst and a flow rate of 0.2 mL/min flow rate of a 0.3 M methyl levulinate solution in 2-propanol. All catalysts employed in this work exhibited good catalytic activities under the investigated conditions, with conversion values in the 15–89% range and, especially, selectivity to Υ-valerolactone in the range of 76–100% (after one hour time on stream). The highest methyl levulinate conversion and selectivity was achieved by ZrO2/Si-SBA-15 which can be explained by the higher dispersion of ZrO2 particles together with a highest accessibility of the Zr sites as compared with other materials such as Zr-SBA-15, also investigated in this work. View Full-Text
Keywords: SBA-15; zirconium; methyl levulinate; Υ-valerolactone; flow chemistry SBA-15; zirconium; methyl levulinate; Υ-valerolactone; flow chemistry
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MDPI and ACS Style

Lázaro, N.; Franco, A.; Ouyang, W.; Balu, A.M.; Romero, A.A.; Luque, R.; Pineda, A. Continuous-Flow Hydrogenation of Methyl Levulinate Promoted by Zr-Based Mesoporous Materials. Catalysts 2019, 9, 142. https://doi.org/10.3390/catal9020142

AMA Style

Lázaro N, Franco A, Ouyang W, Balu AM, Romero AA, Luque R, Pineda A. Continuous-Flow Hydrogenation of Methyl Levulinate Promoted by Zr-Based Mesoporous Materials. Catalysts. 2019; 9(2):142. https://doi.org/10.3390/catal9020142

Chicago/Turabian Style

Lázaro, Noelia; Franco, Ana; Ouyang, Weiyi; Balu, Alina M.; Romero, Antonio A.; Luque, Rafael; Pineda, Antonio. 2019. "Continuous-Flow Hydrogenation of Methyl Levulinate Promoted by Zr-Based Mesoporous Materials" Catalysts 9, no. 2: 142. https://doi.org/10.3390/catal9020142

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