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Biocatalytic Synthesis of Natural Green Leaf Volatiles Using the Lipoxygenase Metabolic Pathway

Université de Corse, CNRS UMR6134 SPE, Laboratoire de Biochimie et Biologie Moléculaire Végétales, campus Grimaldi, BP52, 20250 Corte, France
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Catalysts 2019, 9(10), 873; https://doi.org/10.3390/catal9100873
Received: 26 September 2019 / Revised: 16 October 2019 / Accepted: 17 October 2019 / Published: 22 October 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Green Synthesis and Catalysis)
In higher plants, the lipoxygenase enzymatic pathway combined actions of several enzymes to convert lipid substrates into signaling and defense molecules called phytooxylipins including short chain volatile aldehydes, alcohols, and esters, known as green leaf volatiles (GLVs). GLVs are synthesized from C18:2 and C18:3 fatty acids that are oxygenated by lipoxygenase (LOX) to form corresponding hydroperoxides, then the action of hydroperoxide lyase (HPL) produces C6 or C9 aldehydes that can undergo isomerization, dehydrogenation, and esterification. GLVs are commonly used as flavors to confer a fresh green odor of vegetable to perfumes, cosmetics, and food products. Given the increasing demand in these natural flavors, biocatalytic processes using the LOX pathway reactions constitute an interesting application. Vegetable oils, chosen for their lipid profile are converted in natural GLVs with high added value. This review describes the enzymatic reactions of GLVs biosynthesis in the plant, as well as the structural and functional properties of the enzymes involved. The various stages of the biocatalytic production processes are approached from the lipid substrate to the corresponding aldehyde or alcoholic aromas, as well as the biotechnological improvements to enhance the production potential of the enzymatic catalysts. View Full-Text
Keywords: lipoxygenase pathway; lipoxygenase; hydroperoxide lyase; green leaf volatiles; natural flavor production; biocatalytic processes; bioconversion; biotechnological application lipoxygenase pathway; lipoxygenase; hydroperoxide lyase; green leaf volatiles; natural flavor production; biocatalytic processes; bioconversion; biotechnological application
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Vincenti, S.; Mariani, M.; Alberti, J.-C.; Jacopini, S.; Brunini-Bronzini de Caraffa, V.; Berti, L.; Maury, J. Biocatalytic Synthesis of Natural Green Leaf Volatiles Using the Lipoxygenase Metabolic Pathway. Catalysts 2019, 9, 873.

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