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Ga/HZSM-5 Catalysed Acetic Acid Ketonisation for Upgrading of Biomass Pyrolysis Vapours

School of Chemical Engineering, University of Birmingham, Birmingham B15 2TT, UK
School of Water, Energy and Environment, Cranfield University, Cranfield MK43 0AL, UK
European Bioenergy Research Institute, Aston University, Birmingham B4 7ET, UK
Fraunhofer UMSICHT, Fraunhofer Institute for Environmental, Safety and Energy Technology, An der Maxhütte 1, 92237 Sulzbach-Rosenberg, Germany
Friedrich-Alexander University Erlangen-Nuremberg, Schlossplatz 4, 91054 Erlangen, Germany
Applied Chemistry & Environmental Science, RMIT University, Melbourne, VIC 3000, Australia
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Catalysts 2019, 9(10), 841;
Received: 19 September 2019 / Revised: 4 October 2019 / Accepted: 5 October 2019 / Published: 11 October 2019
Pyrolysis bio-oils contain significant amounts of carboxylic acids which limit their utility as biofuels. Ketonisation of carboxylic acids within biomass pyrolysis vapours is a potential route to upgrade the energy content and stability of the resulting bio-oil condensate, but requires active, selective and coke-resistant solid acid catalysts. Here we explore the vapour phase ketonisation of acetic acid over Ga-doped HZSM-5. Weak Lewis acid sites were identified as the active species responsible for acetic acid ketonisation to acetone at 350 °C and 400 °C. Turnover frequencies were proportional to Ga loading, reaching ~6 min−1 at 400 °C for 10Ga/HZSM-5. Selectivity to the desired acetone product correlated with the weak:strong acid site ratio, being favoured over weak Lewis acid sites and reaching 30% for 10Ga/HZSM-5. Strong Brønsted acidity promoted competing unselective reactions and carbon laydown. 10Ga/HZSM-5 exhibited good stability for over 5 h on-stream acetic acid ketonisation. View Full-Text
Keywords: pyrolysis; ketonisation; bio-oil; turnover frequencies (TOFs) pyrolysis; ketonisation; bio-oil; turnover frequencies (TOFs)
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MDPI and ACS Style

Jahangiri, H.; Osatiashtiani, A.; Ouadi, M.; Hornung, A.; Lee, A.F.; Wilson, K. Ga/HZSM-5 Catalysed Acetic Acid Ketonisation for Upgrading of Biomass Pyrolysis Vapours. Catalysts 2019, 9, 841.

AMA Style

Jahangiri H, Osatiashtiani A, Ouadi M, Hornung A, Lee AF, Wilson K. Ga/HZSM-5 Catalysed Acetic Acid Ketonisation for Upgrading of Biomass Pyrolysis Vapours. Catalysts. 2019; 9(10):841.

Chicago/Turabian Style

Jahangiri, Hessam, Amin Osatiashtiani, Miloud Ouadi, Andreas Hornung, Adam F. Lee, and Karen Wilson. 2019. "Ga/HZSM-5 Catalysed Acetic Acid Ketonisation for Upgrading of Biomass Pyrolysis Vapours" Catalysts 9, no. 10: 841.

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