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Open AccessArticle

Highly Active TiO2 Microspheres Formation in the Presence of Ethylammonium Nitrate Ionic Liquid

1
Faculty of Chemistry, University of Gdansk, 80-308 Gdansk, Poland
2
Faculty of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Escuela Politécnica Nacional, Quito 170525, Ecuador
3
Institute of Physical Chemistry, Polish Academy of Sciences, 01-224 Warsaw, Poland
4
Faculty of Applied Physics and Mathematics, Gdansk University of Technology, 80-233 Gdansk, Poland
5
Department of Analytical Chemistry, Faculty of Chemistry, Gdansk University of Technology, 80-233 Gdańsk, Poland
6
Department of Chemical Technology, Faculty of Chemistry, Gdansk University of Technology, 80-233 Gdansk, Poland
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Catalysts 2018, 8(7), 279; https://doi.org/10.3390/catal8070279
Received: 14 May 2018 / Revised: 13 June 2018 / Accepted: 13 June 2018 / Published: 11 July 2018
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nanomaterials for Environmental Purification and Energy Conversion)
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Abstract

Spherical microparticles of TiO2 were synthesized by the ionic liquid-assisted solvothermal method at different reaction times (3, 6, 12, and 24 h). The properties of the prepared photocatalysts were investigated by means of UV-VIS diffuse-reflectance spectroscopy (DRS), Brunauer–Emmett–Teller (BET) surface area measurements, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray diffraction analysis (XRD), and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). The results indicated that the efficiency of the phenol degradation was related to the time of the solvothermal synthesis, as determined for the TiO2_EAN(1:1)_24h sample. The microparticles of TiO2_EAN(1:1)_3h that formed during only 3 h of the synthesis time revealed a really high photoactivity under visible irradiation (75%). This value increased to 80% and 82% after 12 h and 24 h, respectively. The photoactivity increase was accompanied by the increase of the specific surface area, thus the poresize as well as the ability to absorb UV-VIS irradiation. The high efficiency of the phenol degradation of the ionic liquid (IL)–TiO2 photocatalysts was ascribed to the interaction between the surface of the TiO2 and ionic liquid components (carbon and nitrogen). View Full-Text
Keywords: ionic liquids; ionic liquid-assisted solvothermal reaction; reaction time; titanium dioxide; heterogeneous photocatalysis; visible light ionic liquids; ionic liquid-assisted solvothermal reaction; reaction time; titanium dioxide; heterogeneous photocatalysis; visible light
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).
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Gołąbiewska, A.; Checa-Suárez, M.; Paszkiewicz-Gawron, M.; Lisowski, W.; Raczuk, E.; Klimczuk, T.; Polkowska, Ż.; Grabowska, E.; Zaleska-Medynska, A.; Łuczak, J. Highly Active TiO2 Microspheres Formation in the Presence of Ethylammonium Nitrate Ionic Liquid. Catalysts 2018, 8, 279.

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