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Heavy Oil Upgrading and Enhanced Recovery in a Steam Injection Process Assisted by NiO- and PdO-Functionalized SiO2 Nanoparticulated Catalysts

1
Grupo de Yacimientos de Hidrocarburos, Departamento de Procesos y Energía, Facultad de Minas, Universidad Nacional de Colombia, 050034 Medellín, Colombia
2
Grupo de Investigación en Fenómenos de Superficie—Michael Polanyi, Departamento de Procesos y Energía, Facultad de Minas, Universidad Nacional de Colombia, 050034 Medellín, Colombia
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Catalysts 2018, 8(4), 132; https://doi.org/10.3390/catal8040132
Received: 27 February 2018 / Revised: 22 March 2018 / Accepted: 22 March 2018 / Published: 29 March 2018
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Solid-Supported Reagents in Palladium-Catalyzed Transformations)
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Abstract

This work aims to investigate the effect of active catalytic nanoparticles on the improvement of the efficiency in recovery of a continuous steam injection process. Catalytic nanoparticles were selected through batch-adsorption experiments and the subsequent evaluation of the temperature for catalytic steam gasification in a thermogravimetric analyzer. A nanoparticulated SiO2 support was functionalized with 1.0 wt % of NiO and PdO nanocrystals, respectively, to improve the catalytic activity of the nanoparticles. Oil recovery was evaluated using a sand pack in steam injection scenarios in the absence and presence of a 500 mg/L SiNi1Pd1 nanoparticles-based nanofluid. The displacement test was carried out by constructing the base curves with water injection followed by steam injection in the absence and presence of the prepared treatment. The oil recovery increased 56% after steam injection with nanoparticles in comparison with the steam injection in the absence of the catalysts. The API gravity increases from 7.2° to 12.1°. Changes in the asphaltenes fraction corroborated the catalytic effect of the nanoparticles by reducing the asphaltenes content and the 620 °C+ residue 40% and 47%, respectively. Also, rheological measurements showed that the viscosity decreased by up to 85% (one order of magnitude) after the nanofluid treatment during the steam injection process. View Full-Text
Keywords: enhanced oil recovery; extra-heavy oil; nanofluid; nanoparticle; steam injection; oil upgrading enhanced oil recovery; extra-heavy oil; nanofluid; nanoparticle; steam injection; oil upgrading
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).
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Cardona, L.; Arias-Madrid, D.; Cortés, F.B.; Lopera, S.H.; Franco, C.A. Heavy Oil Upgrading and Enhanced Recovery in a Steam Injection Process Assisted by NiO- and PdO-Functionalized SiO2 Nanoparticulated Catalysts. Catalysts 2018, 8, 132.

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