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Waste into Fuel—Catalyst and Process Development for MSW Valorisation

1
Institute of Physical Chemistry Polish Academy of Science, Kasprzaka 44/52, 01-224 Warsaw, Poland
2
Department of Chemical Engineering, University of Virginia, 102 Engineers’ Way, Charlottesville, VA 22904-4741, USA
3
Department of Interfacial Phenomena, Faculty of Chemistry, Maria Curie-Skłodowska University, 20-031 Lublin, Poland
4
Jerzy Haber Institute of Catalysis and Surface Chemistry PAS, Niezapominajek 8, PL-30239 Krakow, Poland
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Catalysts 2018, 8(3), 113; https://doi.org/10.3390/catal8030113
Received: 28 December 2017 / Revised: 8 March 2018 / Accepted: 12 March 2018 / Published: 14 March 2018
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Novel Enzyme and Whole-Cell Biocatalysis)
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Abstract

The present review paper highlights recent progress in the processing of potential municipal solid waste (MSW) derived fuels. These wastes come from the sieved fraction ( < 40 mm), which, after sorting, can differ in biodegradable fraction content ranging from 5–60%. The fuels obtained from these wastes possess volumetric energy densities in the range of 15.6–26.8 MJL−1 and are composed mainly of methanol, ethanol, butanol, and carboxylic acids. Although these waste streams are a cheap and abundant source (and decrease the fraction going to landfills), syngas produced from MSW contains various impurities such as organic compounds, nitrogen oxides, sulfur, and chlorine components. These limit its use for advanced electricity generation especially for heat and power generation units based on high temperature fuel cells such as solid oxide fuel cells (SOFC) or molten carbonate fuel cells (MCFC). In this paper, we review recent research developments in the continuous MSW processing for syngas production specifically concentrating on dry reforming and the catalytic sorbent effects on effluent and process efficiency. A particular emphasis is placed on waste derived biofuels, which are currently a primary candidate for a sustainable biofuel of tomorrow, catalysts/catalytic sorbents with decreased amounts of noble metals, their long term activity, and poison resistance, and novel nano-sorbent materials. In this review, future prospects for waste to fuels or chemicals and the needed research to further process technologies are discussed. View Full-Text
Keywords: Ni catalyst; MSW; gasification; dry reforming; HCl removal Ni catalyst; MSW; gasification; dry reforming; HCl removal
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).
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Pieta, I.S.; Epling, W.S.; Kazmierczuk, A.; Lisowski, P.; Nowakowski, R.; Serwicka, E.M. Waste into Fuel—Catalyst and Process Development for MSW Valorisation. Catalysts 2018, 8, 113.

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