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Performance of Ru/La2O3–ZnO Catalyst for the Selective Hydrogenation of Benzene to Cyclohexene

Ernst Berl-Institut für Technische und Makromolekulare Chemie, Technische Chemie II, Technische Universität Darmstadt, Alarich-Weiss-Str. 8, 64287 Darmstadt, Germany
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Keith Hohn
Catalysts 2015, 5(4), 1756-1769;
Received: 6 September 2015 / Revised: 18 October 2015 / Accepted: 19 October 2015 / Published: 22 October 2015
PDF [606 KB, uploaded 22 October 2015]


Cyclohexene is an important intermediate product for a highly efficient and greener formation of major end products like adipic acid, nylon 6, and nylon 6.6. By using a complex tetra-phase system (g/l/l/s) including hydrogen (g), water (l), an organic phase, i.e., benzene (l), and a supported ruthenium catalyst (s) it is possible to get the desired intermediate cyclohexene based on benzene. We prepared an oxide-supported ruthenium catalyst that was applied together with minimal amounts of the additive NaDCA (sodium dicyanamide) in a batch and continuous apparatus for the selective benzene hydrogenation. We compared these two processes and reached by an optimization of the reaction parameters in continuous process selectivities up to 50% at conversions of 36%. This corresponds to cyclohexene yields of 18% over a period of 100 h. Finally, the catalyst was characterized using X-ray diffraction (XRD), transmission electron spectroscopy (TEM), inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry (ICP-OES), and laser scattering to understand the performance of the catalyst and the effect of the small deactivation. View Full-Text
Keywords: benzene; cyclohexene; ruthenium; hydrogenation; continuous; tetra-phase system benzene; cyclohexene; ruthenium; hydrogenation; continuous; tetra-phase system

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Spod, H.; Lucas, M.; Claus, P. Performance of Ru/La2O3–ZnO Catalyst for the Selective Hydrogenation of Benzene to Cyclohexene. Catalysts 2015, 5, 1756-1769.

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