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Article

CNT-TiO2−δ Composites for Improved Co-Catalyst Dispersion and Stabilized Photocatalytic Hydrogen Production

1
Laboratory of Industrial Chemistry, Ruhr-University Bochum, Universitätstrasse 150, 44780 Bochum, Germany
2
Inorganic Chemistry, Ruhr-University Bochum, Universitätstrasse 150, 44780 Bochum, Germany
3
Department of Microstructure Physics and Alloy Design, Max-Planck-Institut für Eisenforschung, Max-Planck-Strasse 1, 40237 Düsseldorf, Germany
4
Institute of Chemistry, Carl von Ossietzky University Oldenburg, Carl-von-Ossietzky-Str. 9-11, 26129 Oldenburg, Germany
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Present address: Institute of Inorganic Chemistry, RWTH Aachen University, Landoltweg 1, 52074 Aachen, Germany.
Academic Editor: Bunsho Ohtani
Catalysts 2015, 5(1), 270-285; https://doi.org/10.3390/catal5010270
Received: 19 December 2014 / Revised: 28 January 2015 / Accepted: 23 February 2015 / Published: 2 March 2015
Composites consisting of carbon nanotubes (CNTs) grown directly on oxygen-deficient anatase TiO2 (TiO2−δ) were synthesized by a two-step chemical vapor deposition (CVD) method and applied in photocatalytic hydrogen production from aqueous methanol solutions using photodeposited Pt as the co-catalyst. Thermogravimetry coupled with mass spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, photocurrent analysis, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, and (scanning) transmission electron microscopy were performed to investigate the physical and (photo)chemical properties of the synthesized CNT-TiO2−δ composites before and after photocatalytic methanol reforming. The initial photocatalytic activity of TiO2 was found to be significantly improved in the presence of oxygen vacancies. An optimized amount (~7.2 wt%) of CNTs grown on the TiO2−δ surface led to a highly effective stabilization of the photocatalytic performance of TiO2−δ, which is attributed to the improved dispersion and stability of the photodeposited Pt co-catalyst nanoparticles and enhanced separation efficiency of photogenerated electron-hole pairs, rendering the photocatalysts less prone to deactivation. View Full-Text
Keywords: carbon nanotubes; TiO2; oxygen deficiency; photocatalytic hydrogen production; platinum co-catalyst; stability carbon nanotubes; TiO2; oxygen deficiency; photocatalytic hydrogen production; platinum co-catalyst; stability
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MDPI and ACS Style

Chen, P.; Wang, L.; Wang, P.; Kostka, A.; Wark, M.; Muhler, M.; Beranek, R. CNT-TiO2−δ Composites for Improved Co-Catalyst Dispersion and Stabilized Photocatalytic Hydrogen Production. Catalysts 2015, 5, 270-285. https://doi.org/10.3390/catal5010270

AMA Style

Chen P, Wang L, Wang P, Kostka A, Wark M, Muhler M, Beranek R. CNT-TiO2−δ Composites for Improved Co-Catalyst Dispersion and Stabilized Photocatalytic Hydrogen Production. Catalysts. 2015; 5(1):270-285. https://doi.org/10.3390/catal5010270

Chicago/Turabian Style

Chen, Peirong, Lidong Wang, Ping Wang, Aleksander Kostka, Michael Wark, Martin Muhler, and Radim Beranek. 2015. "CNT-TiO2−δ Composites for Improved Co-Catalyst Dispersion and Stabilized Photocatalytic Hydrogen Production" Catalysts 5, no. 1: 270-285. https://doi.org/10.3390/catal5010270

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