Nowadays, water pollution is one of the most dangerous environmental problems in the world. The presence of the so-called emerging pollutants in the different water bodies, impossible to eliminate through conventional biological and physical treatments used in wastewater treatment plants due to their persistent and recalcitrant nature, means that pollution continues growing throughout the world. The presence of these emerging pollutants involves serious risks to human and animal health for aquatic and terrestrial organisms. Therefore, in recent years, advanced oxidation processes (AOPs) have been postulated as a viable, innovative and efficient technology for the elimination of these types of compounds from water bodies. The oxidation/reduction reactions triggered in most of these processes require a suitable catalyst. The most recent research focuses on the use and development of different types of heterogeneous catalysts, which are capable of overcoming some of the operational limitations of homogeneous processes such as the generation of metallic sludge, difficult separation of treated water and narrow working pH. This review details the current advances in the field of heterogeneous AOPs, Fenton processes and photocatalysts for the removal of different types of emerging pollutants.
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