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Open AccessArticle

Biological Activities of NHC–Pd(II) Complexes Based on Benzimidazolylidene N-heterocyclic Carbene (NHC) Ligands Bearing Aryl Substituents

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Department of Biology, College of Science and Arts, Qassim University, Unaizah 51911, Saudi Arabia
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Department of Science Laboratories, College of Science and Arts, Qassim University, Ar Rass 52719, Saudi Arabia
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Research Laboratory of Environmental Sciences and Technologies (LR16ES09), Higher Institute of Environmental Sciences and Technology, University of Carthage, Hammam-Lif 2050, Tunisia
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Department of Clinical Nutrition, College of Applied Health Sciences, Qassim University, Ar Rass 52719, Saudi Arabia
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Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science and Art, İnönü University, Malatya 44280, Turkey
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Catalysis Research and Application Center, İnönü University, Malatya 44280, Turkey
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Department of Chemistry, College of Science and Arts, Qassim University, Ar Rass 52719, Saudi Arabia
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Dedicated to P.H. Dixneuf for his outstanding contribution to organometallic chemistry and catalysis.
Catalysts 2020, 10(10), 1190; https://doi.org/10.3390/catal10101190
Received: 19 September 2020 / Revised: 6 October 2020 / Accepted: 9 October 2020 / Published: 15 October 2020
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Recent Advances in Organometallic Chemistry and Catalysis)
N-heterocyclic carbene (NHC) precursors (2a–i), their pyridine-enhanced precatalyst preparation stabilization and initiation (PEPPSI)-themed palladium N-heterocyclic carbene complexes (3a–i) and palladium N-heterocyclic triphenylphosphines complexes (4a–i) were synthesized and characterized by elemental analysis and 1H NMR, 13C NMR, IR, and LC–MS spectroscopic techniques. The (NHC)Pd(II) complexes 3–4 were tested against MCF7 and MDA-MB-231 cancer cells, Escherichia coli, methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), Candida albicans microorganisms, Leishmania major promastigotes and amastigotes, Toxoplasma gondii parasites, and Vero cells in vitro. The biological assays indicated that all compounds are highly active against cancer cells, with an IC50 < 1.5 µg mL−1. Eight compounds proved antibacterial and antileishmanial activities, while only three compounds had strong antifungal activities against C. albicans. In our conclusion, compounds 3 (b, f, g, and h) and 4b are the most suitable drug candidates for anticancer, antimicrobial, and antiparasitical. View Full-Text
Keywords: Pd(II)–N-heterocyclic carbene (NHC) complexes; benzimidazolium salts; biological activities; cytotoxicity Pd(II)–N-heterocyclic carbene (NHC) complexes; benzimidazolium salts; biological activities; cytotoxicity
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MDPI and ACS Style

Al Nasr, I.; Touj, N.; Koko, W.; Khan, T.; Özdemir, I.; Yaşar, S.; Hamdi, N. Biological Activities of NHC–Pd(II) Complexes Based on Benzimidazolylidene N-heterocyclic Carbene (NHC) Ligands Bearing Aryl Substituents. Catalysts 2020, 10, 1190.

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