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The HD-Domain Metalloprotein Superfamily: An Apparent Common Protein Scaffold with Diverse Chemistries

Department of Biochemistry, Brandeis University, 415 South Street, Waltham, MA 02453, USA
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Catalysts 2020, 10(10), 1191; https://doi.org/10.3390/catal10101191
Received: 10 September 2020 / Revised: 6 October 2020 / Accepted: 9 October 2020 / Published: 15 October 2020
(This article belongs to the Section Biocatalysis)
The histidine–aspartate (HD)-domain protein superfamily contains metalloproteins that share common structural features but catalyze vastly different reactions ranging from oxygenation to hydrolysis. This chemical diversion is afforded by (i) their ability to coordinate most biologically relevant transition metals in mono-, di-, and trinuclear configurations, (ii) sequence insertions or the addition of supernumerary ligands to their active sites, (iii) auxiliary substrate specificity residues vicinal to the catalytic site, (iv) additional protein domains that allosterically regulate their activities or have catalytic and sensory roles, and (v) their ability to work with protein partners. More than 500 structures of HD-domain proteins are available to date that lay out unique structural features which may be indicative of function. In this respect, we describe the three known classes of HD-domain proteins (hydrolases, oxygenases, and lyases) and identify their apparent traits with the aim to portray differences in the molecular details responsible for their functional divergence and reconcile existing notions that will help assign functions to yet-to-be characterized proteins. The present review collects data that exemplify how nature tinkers with the HD-domain scaffold to afford different chemistries and provides insight into the factors that can selectively modulate catalysis. View Full-Text
Keywords: HD-domain; metalloprotein; oxygenase; phosphatase; phosphodiesterase; hydratase; nucleic acid; phosphonate; diiron HD-domain; metalloprotein; oxygenase; phosphatase; phosphodiesterase; hydratase; nucleic acid; phosphonate; diiron
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Langton, M.; Sun, S.; Ueda, C.; Markey, M.; Chen, J.; Paddy, I.; Jiang, P.; Chin, N.; Milne, A.; Pandelia, M.-E. The HD-Domain Metalloprotein Superfamily: An Apparent Common Protein Scaffold with Diverse Chemistries. Catalysts 2020, 10, 1191.

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