Next Article in Journal
Successful Nash Equilibrium Agent for a Three-Player Imperfect-Information Game
Previous Article in Journal
Evolutionary Game Theory: A Renaissance
Previous Article in Special Issue
Bifurcation Mechanism Design—From Optimal Flat Taxes to Better Cancer Treatments
Article Menu

Export Article

Open AccessFeature PaperArticle
Games 2018, 9(2), 32;

Game Theory of Tumor–Stroma Interactions in Multiple Myeloma: Effect of Nonlinear Benefits

Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of Kashan, Kashan 8731753153, Iran
Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Isfahan University of Technology, Isfahan 8415683111, Iran
School of Biological Sciences, University of East Anglia, Norwich NR4 7TJ, UK
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 4 April 2018 / Revised: 18 May 2018 / Accepted: 22 May 2018 / Published: 28 May 2018
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Game Theory and Cancer)
Full-Text   |   PDF [4829 KB, uploaded 30 May 2018]   |  


Cancer cells and stromal cells often exchange growth factors with paracrine effects that promote cell growth: a form of cooperation that can be studied by evolutionary game theory. Previous models have assumed that interactions between cells are pairwise or that the benefit of a growth factor is a linear function of its concentration. Diffusible factors, however, affect multiple cells and generally have nonlinear effects, and these differences are known to have important consequences for evolutionary dynamics. Here, we study tumor–stroma paracrine signaling using a model with multiplayer collective interactions in which growth factors have nonlinear effects. We use multiple myeloma as an example, modelling interactions between malignant plasma cells, osteoblasts, and osteoclasts. Nonlinear benefits can lead to results not observed in linear models, including internal mixed stable equilibria and cyclical dynamics. Models with linear effects, therefore, do not lead to a meaningful characterization of the dynamics of tumor–stroma interactions. To understand the dynamics and the effect of therapies it is necessary to estimate the shape of the benefit functions experimentally and parametrize models based on these functions. View Full-Text
Keywords: game theory; cancer; stroma; tumor microenvironment; nonlinear benefits game theory; cancer; stroma; tumor microenvironment; nonlinear benefits

Figure 1

This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).

Share & Cite This Article

MDPI and ACS Style

Sartakhti, J.S.; Manshaei, M.H.; Archetti, M. Game Theory of Tumor–Stroma Interactions in Multiple Myeloma: Effect of Nonlinear Benefits. Games 2018, 9, 32.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats

Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Related Articles

Article Metrics

Article Access Statistics



[Return to top]
Games EISSN 2073-4336 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert
Back to Top