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Updates and Controversies in the Rapidly Evolving Field of Lung Cancer Screening, Early Detection, and Chemoprevention

1
The Pulmonary Center, Boston University School of Medicine, 72 East Concord Street, Boston, MA 02118, USA
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Division of Pulmonary, Allergy, and Critical Care Medicine, 72 East Concord Street, Boston University School of Medicine, Boston, MA 02118, USA
3
Division of Computational Biomedicine, Boston University School of Medicine, 72 East Concord Street, Boston, MA 02118, USA
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Bioinformatics Program, Boston University, 24 Cummington Mall, Boston, MA 02215, USA
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Department of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine, Boston University School of Medicine, 72 East Concord Street, Boston, MA 02118, USA
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Cancers 2014, 6(2), 1157-1179; https://doi.org/10.3390/cancers6021157
Received: 13 February 2014 / Revised: 25 April 2014 / Accepted: 8 May 2014 / Published: 16 May 2014
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Tobacco-related Cancers)
Lung cancer remains the leading cause of cancer-related death in the United States. Cigarette smoking is a well-recognized risk factor for lung cancer, and a sustained elevation of lung cancer risk persists even after smoking cessation. Despite identifiable risk factors, there has been minimal improvement in mortality for patients with lung cancer primarily stemming from diagnosis at a late stage when there are few effective therapeutic options. Early detection of lung cancer and effective screening of high-risk individuals may help improve lung cancer mortality. While low dose computerized tomography (LDCT) screening of high risk smokers has been shown to reduce lung cancer mortality, the high rates of false positives and potential for over-diagnosis have raised questions on how to best implement lung cancer screening. The rapidly evolving field of lung cancer screening and early-detection biomarkers may ultimately improve the ability to diagnose lung cancer in its early stages, identify smokers at highest-risk for this disease, and target chemoprevention strategies. This review aims to provide an overview of the opportunities and challenges related to lung cancer screening, the field of biomarker development for early lung cancer detection, and the future of lung cancer chemoprevention. View Full-Text
Keywords: lung cancer; screening; early detection; chemoprevention lung cancer; screening; early detection; chemoprevention
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Kathuria, H.; Gesthalter, Y.; Spira, A.; Brody, J.S.; Steiling, K. Updates and Controversies in the Rapidly Evolving Field of Lung Cancer Screening, Early Detection, and Chemoprevention. Cancers 2014, 6, 1157-1179.

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