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Models of Hepatocellular Carcinoma and Biomarker Strategy

Global Science & Technology, PGRD, Pfizer Inc, Groton, CT 06340, USA
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Cancers 2010, 2(3), 1441-1452;
Received: 3 June 2010 / Revised: 2 July 2010 / Accepted: 6 July 2010 / Published: 7 July 2010
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Biomarkers: Oncology Studies)
PDF [303 KB, uploaded 7 July 2010]


The overwhelming need to improve preclinical models in oncology has stimulated research efforts to refine and validate robust orthotopic models that closely mimic the disease population and therefore have the potential to better predict clinical outcome with novel therapies. Sophisticated technologies including bioluminescence, contrast enhanced ultrasound imaging, positron emission tomography, computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging have been added to existing serum- and histology-based biomarkers to assist with patient selection and the design of clinical trials. The rationale for the use of human hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) cell lines, implementation of xenograft and orthotopic animal models and utilization of available biomarkers have been discussed, providing guidelines to facilitate preclinical research for the development of treatments for HCC patients. View Full-Text
Keywords: HCC; cell cocktail; orthotopic models; liver vasculature; CEUS; PET; MRI; histology HCC; cell cocktail; orthotopic models; liver vasculature; CEUS; PET; MRI; histology

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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY 3.0).

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Bagi, C.M.; Andresen, C.J. Models of Hepatocellular Carcinoma and Biomarker Strategy. Cancers 2010, 2, 1441-1452.

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