Next Article in Journal
CSA Antisense Targeting Enhances Anticancer Drug Sensitivity in Breast Cancer Cells, including the Triple-Negative Subtype
Previous Article in Journal
Breast Radiotherapy after Oncoplastic Surgery—A Multidisciplinary Approach
Previous Article in Special Issue
Treatment of Resectable Gallbladder Cancer
Review

Palliation in Gallbladder Cancer: The Role of Gastrointestinal Endoscopy

1
Digestive Endoscopy Unit, Fondazione Policlinico Universitario Agostino Gemelli IRCCS, Largo A. Gemelli, 00168 Rome, Italy
2
Centre for Endoscopic Research, Therapeutics and Training (CERTT), Università Cattolica del Sacro Cuore di Roma, Largo F. Vito, 00168 Rome, Italy
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editors: Philip De Reuver and Chella van der Post
Cancers 2022, 14(7), 1686; https://doi.org/10.3390/cancers14071686
Received: 7 February 2022 / Revised: 23 March 2022 / Accepted: 24 March 2022 / Published: 26 March 2022
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Pathophysiology and Treatment of Gallbladder Cancer)
Gallbladder cancer is burdened by poor prognosis, and palliation often represents the best option. Endoscopy plays a crucial role in the management of cholangitis, jaundice, gastric outlet obstruction, and pain. The aim of this study is to perform a review of the literature to assess the role of endoscopy in the palliative therapy of advanced gallbladder malignancy.
Gallbladder cancer is a rare malignancy burdened by poor prognosis with an estimated 5-year survival of 5% to 13% due to late presentation, early infiltration of surrounding tissues, and lack of successful treatments. The only curative approach is surgery; however, more than 50% of cases are unresectable at the time of diagnosis. Endoscopy represents, together with surgery and chemotherapy, an available palliative option in advanced gallbladder cancers not eligible for curative treatments. Cholangitis, jaundice, gastric outlet obstruction, and pain are common complications of advanced gallbladder cancer that may need endoscopic management in order to improve the overall survival and the patients’ quality of life. Endoscopic biliary drainage is frequently performed to manage cholangitis and jaundice. ERCP is generally the preferred technique allowing the placement of a plastic stent or a self-expandable metal stent depending on the singular clinical case. EUS-guided biliary drainage is an available alternative for patients not amenable to ERCP drainage (e.g., altered anatomy). Gastric outlet obstruction is another rare complication of gallbladder malignancy growing in contact with the duodenal wall and causing its compression. Endoscopy is a less invasive alternative to surgery, offering different options such as an intraluminal self-expandable metal stent or EUS-guided gastroenteroanastomosis. Abdominal pain associated with cancer progression is generally managed with medical treatments; however, for incoercible pain, EUS-guided celiac plexus neurolysis has been described as an effective and safe treatment. Locoregional treatments, such as radiofrequency ablation (RFA), photodynamic therapy (PDT), and intraluminal brachytherapy (IBT), have been described in the control of disease progression; however, their role in daily clinical practice has not been established yet. The aim of this study is to perform a review of the literature in order to assess the role of endoscopy and the available techniques in the palliative therapy of advanced gallbladder malignancy. View Full-Text
Keywords: gallbladder cancer; endoscopy; endoscopic palliation gallbladder cancer; endoscopy; endoscopic palliation
Show Figures

Figure 1

MDPI and ACS Style

Schepis, T.; Boškoski, I.; Tringali, A.; Bove, V.; Costamagna, G. Palliation in Gallbladder Cancer: The Role of Gastrointestinal Endoscopy. Cancers 2022, 14, 1686. https://doi.org/10.3390/cancers14071686

AMA Style

Schepis T, Boškoski I, Tringali A, Bove V, Costamagna G. Palliation in Gallbladder Cancer: The Role of Gastrointestinal Endoscopy. Cancers. 2022; 14(7):1686. https://doi.org/10.3390/cancers14071686

Chicago/Turabian Style

Schepis, Tommaso, Ivo Boškoski, Andrea Tringali, Vincenzo Bove, and Guido Costamagna. 2022. "Palliation in Gallbladder Cancer: The Role of Gastrointestinal Endoscopy" Cancers 14, no. 7: 1686. https://doi.org/10.3390/cancers14071686

Find Other Styles
Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Article Access Map by Country/Region

1
Back to TopTop