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Review

Biomarkers and Genetic Markers of Hepatocellular Carcinoma and Cholangiocarcinoma—What Do We Already Know

1
Department of Anatomy, Medical University of Lublin, 20-090 Lublin, Poland
2
Department of Forensic Medicine, Medical University of Lublin, 20-090 Lublin, Poland
3
Department of Analytical Chemistry, Medical University of Lublin, 20-093 Lublin, Poland
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Department of Public Health, Medical University of Lublin, 20-093 Lublin, Poland
5
Clinica Medica “A. Murri”, Department of Biomedical Sciences & Human Oncology, University of Bari Medical School, 70124 Bari, Italy
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Filippo Oliveri
Cancers 2022, 14(6), 1493; https://doi.org/10.3390/cancers14061493
Received: 9 February 2022 / Revised: 9 March 2022 / Accepted: 13 March 2022 / Published: 15 March 2022
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Chronic Liver Disease and Hepatocellular Carcinoma Biomarkers)
Hepatocellular carcinoma and cholangiocarcinoma continue to remain a serious threat. In this review, we describe the most common biomarkers and genetic markers currently used in the diagnosis of hepatocellular carcinoma and cholangiocarcinoma. It can be observed that biomarkers and genetic markers might be applied in various parts of diagnosis including screening tests in a high-risk group, non-invasive detection, control of therapy, treatment selection, and control of recurrence. Also, it can be seen that nowadays there is a need for more specific markers that would improve the detection in early or very early stages of both types of cancers and further research should be focused on it.
Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is the most common primary liver cancer with an increasing worldwide mortality rate. Cholangiocarcinoma (CCA) is the second most common primary liver cancer. In both types of cancers, early detection is very important. Biomarkers are a relevant part of diagnosis, enabling non-invasive detection and control of cancer recurrence, as well as in the application of screening tests in high-risk groups. Furthermore, some of these biomarkers are useful in controlling therapy and treatment selection. Detection of some markers presents higher sensitivity and specificity in combination with other markers when compared with a single detection. Some gene aberrations are also prognostic markers in the two types of cancers. In the following review, we discuss the most common biomarkers and genetic markers currently being used in the diagnosis of hepatocellular carcinoma and cholangiocarcinoma. View Full-Text
Keywords: biomarker; genetic marker; hepatocellular carcinoma; cholangiocarcinoma; screening; diagnosis; therapy; treatment biomarker; genetic marker; hepatocellular carcinoma; cholangiocarcinoma; screening; diagnosis; therapy; treatment
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MDPI and ACS Style

Baj, J.; Bryliński, Ł.; Woliński, F.; Granat, M.; Kostelecka, K.; Duda, P.; Flieger, J.; Teresiński, G.; Buszewicz, G.; Furtak-Niczyporuk, M.; Portincasa, P. Biomarkers and Genetic Markers of Hepatocellular Carcinoma and Cholangiocarcinoma—What Do We Already Know. Cancers 2022, 14, 1493. https://doi.org/10.3390/cancers14061493

AMA Style

Baj J, Bryliński Ł, Woliński F, Granat M, Kostelecka K, Duda P, Flieger J, Teresiński G, Buszewicz G, Furtak-Niczyporuk M, Portincasa P. Biomarkers and Genetic Markers of Hepatocellular Carcinoma and Cholangiocarcinoma—What Do We Already Know. Cancers. 2022; 14(6):1493. https://doi.org/10.3390/cancers14061493

Chicago/Turabian Style

Baj, Jacek, Łukasz Bryliński, Filip Woliński, Michał Granat, Katarzyna Kostelecka, Piotr Duda, Jolanta Flieger, Grzegorz Teresiński, Grzegorz Buszewicz, Marzena Furtak-Niczyporuk, and Piero Portincasa. 2022. "Biomarkers and Genetic Markers of Hepatocellular Carcinoma and Cholangiocarcinoma—What Do We Already Know" Cancers 14, no. 6: 1493. https://doi.org/10.3390/cancers14061493

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