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Article

Amygdalin Exerts Antitumor Activity in Taxane-Resistant Prostate Cancer Cells

1
Department of Urology and Pediatric Urology, University Medicine Mainz, Langenbeckstr. 1, 55131 Mainz, Germany
2
Department of Urology, Goethe-University, 60590 Frankfurt am Main, Germany
3
Institute of Medical Virology, Goethe-University, 60596 Frankfurt am Main, Germany
4
Petra Joh-Forschungshaus, 60528 Frankfurt am Main, Germany
5
Industrial Biotechnology Centre, School of Biosciences, University of Kent, Canterbury CT2 7NJ, UK
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
These authors contributed equally.
Cancers 2022, 14(13), 3111; https://doi.org/10.3390/cancers14133111
Received: 29 May 2022 / Revised: 17 June 2022 / Accepted: 23 June 2022 / Published: 24 June 2022
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Prostate Cancer Therapy)
The natural compound amygdalin is popular among tumor patients as an alternative treatment option. However, knowledge about its precise mode of action remains poor. In the present study, amygdalin is shown to inhibit growth and disseminative properties of taxane-resistant prostate cancer cells. Further investigation is warranted to determine the role of amygdalin in the setting of metastasized prostate cancer.
Despite recent advances in the treatment of metastatic prostate cancer (PCa), resistance development after taxane treatments is inevitable, necessitating effective options to combat drug resistance. Previous studies indicated antitumoral properties of the natural compound amygdalin. However, whether amygdalin acts on drug-resistant tumor cells remains questionable. An in vitro study was performed to investigate the influence of amygdalin (10 mg/mL) on the growth of a panel of therapy-naïve and docetaxel- or cabazitaxel-resistant PCa cell lines (PC3, DU145, and LNCaP cells). Tumor growth, proliferation, clonal growth, and cell cycle progression were investigated. The cell cycle regulating proteins (phospho)cdk1, (phospho)cdk2, cyclin A, cyclin B, p21, and p27 and the mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) pathway proteins (phospho)Akt, (phospho)Raptor, and (phospho)Rictor as well as integrin β1 and the cytoskeletal proteins vimentin, ezrin, talin, and cytokeratin 8/18 were assessed. Furthermore, chemotactic activity and adhesion to extracellular matrix components were analyzed. Amygdalin dose-dependently inhibited tumor growth and reduced tumor clones in all (parental and resistant) PCa cell lines, accompanied by a G0/G1 phase accumulation. Cell cycle regulating proteins were significantly altered by amygdalin. A moderate influence of amygdalin on tumor cell adhesion and chemotaxis was observed as well, paralleled by modifications of cytoskeletal proteins and the integrin β1 expression level. Amygdalin may, therefore, block tumor growth and disseminative characteristics of taxane-resistant PCa cells. Further studies are warranted to determine amygdalin’s value as an antitumor drug. View Full-Text
Keywords: prostate cancer; resistant cell lines; complementary/alternative medicine (CAM); amygdalin; docetaxel; cabozantinib; cabazitaxel prostate cancer; resistant cell lines; complementary/alternative medicine (CAM); amygdalin; docetaxel; cabozantinib; cabazitaxel
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MDPI and ACS Style

Tsaur, I.; Thomas, A.; Monecke, M.; Zugelder, M.; Rutz, J.; Grein, T.; Maxeiner, S.; Xie, H.; Chun, F.K.-H.; Rothweiler, F.; Cinatl, J., Jr.; Michaelis, M.; Haferkamp, A.; Blaheta, R.A. Amygdalin Exerts Antitumor Activity in Taxane-Resistant Prostate Cancer Cells. Cancers 2022, 14, 3111. https://doi.org/10.3390/cancers14133111

AMA Style

Tsaur I, Thomas A, Monecke M, Zugelder M, Rutz J, Grein T, Maxeiner S, Xie H, Chun FK-H, Rothweiler F, Cinatl J Jr., Michaelis M, Haferkamp A, Blaheta RA. Amygdalin Exerts Antitumor Activity in Taxane-Resistant Prostate Cancer Cells. Cancers. 2022; 14(13):3111. https://doi.org/10.3390/cancers14133111

Chicago/Turabian Style

Tsaur, Igor, Anita Thomas, Michelle Monecke, Marion Zugelder, Jochen Rutz, Timothy Grein, Sebastian Maxeiner, Hui Xie, Felix K.-H. Chun, Florian Rothweiler, Jindrich Cinatl Jr., Martin Michaelis, Axel Haferkamp, and Roman A. Blaheta. 2022. "Amygdalin Exerts Antitumor Activity in Taxane-Resistant Prostate Cancer Cells" Cancers 14, no. 13: 3111. https://doi.org/10.3390/cancers14133111

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