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Review

Immunotherapy in Patients with Advanced Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer Lacking Driver Mutations and Future Perspectives

1
Division of Medical Oncology, Escola Paulista de Medicina, Hospital São Paulo, Universidade Federal de São Paulo (UNIFESP), Sao Paulo 04023-900, Brazil
2
Faculdade de Medicina, Universidade Nove de Julho, Sao Paulo 04023-900, Brazil
3
Centro Médico Especialidades, Division of Medical Oncology, Hospital 9 de Julho, Sao Paulo 01409-002, Brazil
4
Faculty of Medicine and Biomedical Sciences (FMCB), Campus de Gambelas, University of Algarve, 8003-139 Faro, Portugal
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editors: Myung-Ju Ahn, Ettore Bidoli and Dirk De Ruysscher
Cancers 2022, 14(1), 122; https://doi.org/10.3390/cancers14010122
Received: 3 November 2021 / Revised: 11 December 2021 / Accepted: 22 December 2021 / Published: 28 December 2021
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Immunotherapy for Non-small Cell Lung Cancer)
The following paper was developed as a reference for healthcare workers who are looking for information on advanced non-small cell lung cancers that lack driver mutations and their treatment with immunotherapy. The aim of the present study is to provide a reliable data source based on a review of the most current papers on the PD-1/PD-L1 and CTLA-4 inhibitors, as well as their use in medical practice.
From a complete literature review, we were able to present in this paper what is most current in the treatment with immunotherapy for advanced non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Especially the use of immunotherapy, particularly inhibitors of PD-1 (programmed cell death protein 1), PDL-1 (programmed cell death protein ligand 1), and CTLA-4 (cytotoxic T-lymphocyte antigen 4). Since 2015, these drugs have transformed the treatment of advanced NSCLC lacking driver mutations, evolving from second-line therapy to first-line, with excellent results. The arrival of new checkpoint inhibitors such as cemiplimab and the use of checkpoint inhibitors earlier in the therapy of advanced and metastatic cancers has been making the future prospects for treating NSCLC lacking driver mutations more favorable and optimistic. In addition, for those patients who have low PDL-1 positivity tumors, the combination of cytotoxic chemotherapy, VEGF inhibitor, and immunotherapy have shown an important improvement in global survival and progression free survival regardless the PDL-1 status. We also explored the effectiveness of adding radiotherapy to immunotherapy and the most current results about this combination. One concern that cannot be overlooked is the safety profile of immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICI) and the most common toxicities are described throughout this paper as well as tumor resistance to ICI. View Full-Text
Keywords: immunotherapy; advanced lung cancer; durvalumab; pembrolizumab; atezolizumab; ipilimumab; nivolumab; cemiplimab; PD1; PDL1; anti PD1; anti PDL-1 immunotherapy; advanced lung cancer; durvalumab; pembrolizumab; atezolizumab; ipilimumab; nivolumab; cemiplimab; PD1; PDL1; anti PD1; anti PDL-1
MDPI and ACS Style

De Mello, R.A.B.; Voscaboinik, R.; Luciano, J.V.P.; Cremonese, R.V.; Amaral, G.A.; Castelo-Branco, P.; Antoniou, G. Immunotherapy in Patients with Advanced Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer Lacking Driver Mutations and Future Perspectives. Cancers 2022, 14, 122. https://doi.org/10.3390/cancers14010122

AMA Style

De Mello RAB, Voscaboinik R, Luciano JVP, Cremonese RV, Amaral GA, Castelo-Branco P, Antoniou G. Immunotherapy in Patients with Advanced Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer Lacking Driver Mutations and Future Perspectives. Cancers. 2022; 14(1):122. https://doi.org/10.3390/cancers14010122

Chicago/Turabian Style

De Mello, Ramon A.B., Rafael Voscaboinik, João V.P. Luciano, Rafaela V. Cremonese, Giovanna A. Amaral, Pedro Castelo-Branco, and Georgios Antoniou. 2022. "Immunotherapy in Patients with Advanced Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer Lacking Driver Mutations and Future Perspectives" Cancers 14, no. 1: 122. https://doi.org/10.3390/cancers14010122

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