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Open AccessArticle

Redox Imbalance and Biochemical Changes in Cancer by Probing Redox-Sensitive Mitochondrial Cytochromes in Label-Free Visible Resonance Raman Imaging

1
Laboratory of Laser Molecular Spectroscopy, Institute of Applied Radiation Chemistry, Lodz University of Technology, Wroblewskiego 15, 93-590 Lodz, Poland
2
Department of Neurosurgery, Spine and Peripheral Nerve Surgery, University Hospital WAM-CSW, Medical University of Lodz, Zeromskiego 113, 91-647 Lodz, Poland
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Samuel C. Mok
Cancers 2021, 13(5), 960; https://doi.org/10.3390/cancers13050960
Received: 25 January 2021 / Revised: 18 February 2021 / Accepted: 21 February 2021 / Published: 25 February 2021
Gliomas comprise around 30% of human brain tumors, while invasive ductal carcinoma (IDC) comprises around 80% of human breast cancers. The aim of our study was to show that cancerogenesis affects the redox status of mitochondrial cytochromes, which can be tracked by using Raman spectroscopy and imaging. Our results confirmed that human breast cancer and brain tumor demonstrate a redox imbalance compared to normal tissues. We have shown the correlation between the intensity of cytochromes Raman bands at 750, 1126, 1337 and 1584 cm−1 and malignancy grade for brain and breast cancers.
To monitor redox state changes and biological mechanisms occurring in mitochondrial cytochromes in cancers improving methods are required. We used Raman spectroscopy and Raman imaging to monitor changes in the redox state of the mitochondrial cytochromes in ex vivo human brain and breast tissues at 532 nm, 633 nm, 785 nm. We identified the oncogenic processes that characterize human infiltrating ductal carcinoma (IDC) and human brain tumors: gliomas; astrocytoma and medulloblastoma based on the quantification of cytochrome redox status by exploiting the resonance-enhancement effect of Raman scattering. We visualized localization of cytochromes by Raman imaging in the breast and brain tissues and analyzed cytochrome c vibrations at 750, 1126, 1337 and 1584 cm−1 as a function of malignancy grade. We found that the concentration of reduced cytochrome c becomes abnormally high in human brain tumors and breast cancers and correlates with the grade of cancer. We showed that Raman imaging provides additional insight into the biology of astrocytomas and breast ductal invasive cancer, which can be used for noninvasive grading, differential diagnosis. View Full-Text
Keywords: redox state; optical biopsy; Raman spectroscopy and imaging; brain and breast cancer; cytochrome c redox state; optical biopsy; Raman spectroscopy and imaging; brain and breast cancer; cytochrome c
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MDPI and ACS Style

Abramczyk, H.; Brozek-Pluska, B.; Kopec, M.; Surmacki, J.; Błaszczyk, M.; Radek, M. Redox Imbalance and Biochemical Changes in Cancer by Probing Redox-Sensitive Mitochondrial Cytochromes in Label-Free Visible Resonance Raman Imaging. Cancers 2021, 13, 960. https://doi.org/10.3390/cancers13050960

AMA Style

Abramczyk H, Brozek-Pluska B, Kopec M, Surmacki J, Błaszczyk M, Radek M. Redox Imbalance and Biochemical Changes in Cancer by Probing Redox-Sensitive Mitochondrial Cytochromes in Label-Free Visible Resonance Raman Imaging. Cancers. 2021; 13(5):960. https://doi.org/10.3390/cancers13050960

Chicago/Turabian Style

Abramczyk, Halina; Brozek-Pluska, Beata; Kopec, Monika; Surmacki, Jakub; Błaszczyk, Maciej; Radek, Maciej. 2021. "Redox Imbalance and Biochemical Changes in Cancer by Probing Redox-Sensitive Mitochondrial Cytochromes in Label-Free Visible Resonance Raman Imaging" Cancers 13, no. 5: 960. https://doi.org/10.3390/cancers13050960

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