Next Article in Journal
Relationship between Tumor Mutational Burden, PD-L1, Patient Characteristics, and Response to Immune Checkpoint Inhibitors in Head and Neck Squamous Cell Carcinoma
Next Article in Special Issue
Dual-Wavelength Fluorescence Monitoring of Photodynamic Therapy: From Analytical Models to Clinical Studies
Previous Article in Journal
Diabetes and Cancer: Risk, Challenges, Management and Outcomes
Previous Article in Special Issue
Diagnostic Performance of Ex Vivo Fluorescence Confocal Microscopy in the Assessment of Diagnostic Biopsies of the Prostate
 
 
Article

FTIR Spectroscopic Imaging Supports Urine Cytology for Classification of Low- and High-Grade Bladder Carcinoma

1
Department of Pathomorphology, Faculty of Medicine, Jagiellonian University Medical College, Grzegorzecka 16, 31-531 Krakow, Poland
2
Faculty of Chemistry, Jagiellonian University in Krakow, Gronostajowa 2, 30-387 Krakow, Poland
3
Department of Experimental Physics of Complex Systems, Institute of Nuclear Physics, Polish Academy of Sciences, Radzikowskiego 152, 31-342 Krakow, Poland
4
Department of Urology, Faculty of Medicine, Jagiellonian University Medical College, Jakubowskiego 2, 30-688 Krakow, Poland
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Fiona Lyng
Cancers 2021, 13(22), 5734; https://doi.org/10.3390/cancers13225734
Received: 13 October 2021 / Revised: 8 November 2021 / Accepted: 10 November 2021 / Published: 16 November 2021
Human urine cytological samples were investigated using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopic imaging in terms of recognition of bladder cancer. The clustering of IR spectra of whole cytological smears revealed very good spectral correlation with normal urothelial cell features. Next, the combination of spectral information derived from unsupervised hierarchical cluster analysis and partial least square discriminant analysis (PLS-DA) classified normal vs. low- and high-grade bladder urothelial carcinoma with sensitivity and specificity of 90–97%.
Bladder urothelial carcinoma (BC) is a common, recurrent, life-threatening, and unpredictable disease which is difficult to diagnose. These features make it one of the costliest malignancies. Although many possible diagnostic methods are available, molecular heterogeneity and difficulties in cytological or histological examination induce an urgent need to improve diagnostic techniques. Herein, we applied Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy in imaging mode (FTIR) to investigate patients’ cytology samples assigned to normal (N), low-grade (LG) and high-grade (HG) BC. With unsupervised hierarchical cluster analysis (UHCA) and hematoxylin-eosin (HE) staining, we observed a correlation between N cell types and morphology. High-glycogen superficial (umbrella) and low-glycogen piriform urothelial cells, both with normal morphology, were observed. Based on the spectra derived from UHCA, principal component analysis (PCA) and partial least squares discriminant analysis (PLS-DA) were performed, indicating a variation of protein content between the patient groups. Moreover, BC spectral cytology identified a low number of high-glycogen cells for which a shift of the carbohydrate/phosphate bands was also observed. Despite high cellular heterogeneity, PLS-DA was able to classify the spectra obtained. The voided urine FTIR cytology is one of the options that might be helpful in BC diagnosis, as high sensitivity and specificity up to 97% were determined. View Full-Text
Keywords: bladder carcinoma; infrared spectroscopic imaging; diagnostics; cytology bladder carcinoma; infrared spectroscopic imaging; diagnostics; cytology
Show Figures

Figure 1

MDPI and ACS Style

Kujdowicz, M.; Mech, B.; Chrabaszcz, K.; Chlosta, P.; Okon, K.; Malek, K. FTIR Spectroscopic Imaging Supports Urine Cytology for Classification of Low- and High-Grade Bladder Carcinoma. Cancers 2021, 13, 5734. https://doi.org/10.3390/cancers13225734

AMA Style

Kujdowicz M, Mech B, Chrabaszcz K, Chlosta P, Okon K, Malek K. FTIR Spectroscopic Imaging Supports Urine Cytology for Classification of Low- and High-Grade Bladder Carcinoma. Cancers. 2021; 13(22):5734. https://doi.org/10.3390/cancers13225734

Chicago/Turabian Style

Kujdowicz, Monika, Brygida Mech, Karolina Chrabaszcz, Piotr Chlosta, Krzysztof Okon, and Kamilla Malek. 2021. "FTIR Spectroscopic Imaging Supports Urine Cytology for Classification of Low- and High-Grade Bladder Carcinoma" Cancers 13, no. 22: 5734. https://doi.org/10.3390/cancers13225734

Find Other Styles
Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Article Access Map by Country/Region

1
Back to TopTop