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Roles of HIF and 2-Oxoglutarate-Dependent Dioxygenases in Controlling Gene Expression in Hypoxia

1
Department of Molecular Physiology and Cell Signalling, Institute of Systems, Molecular and Integrative Biology, University of Liverpool, Liverpool L69 7ZB, UK
2
Centre for Gene Regulation and Expression, School of Life Sciences, University of Dundee, Dundee DD1 5EH, UK
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Cancers 2021, 13(2), 350; https://doi.org/10.3390/cancers13020350
Received: 24 November 2020 / Revised: 12 January 2021 / Accepted: 15 January 2021 / Published: 19 January 2021
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Novel Perspectives on Hypoxia in Cancer)
Hypoxia—reduction in oxygen availability—plays key roles in both physiological and pathological processes. Given the importance of oxygen for cell and organism viability, mechanisms to sense and respond to hypoxia are in place. A variety of enzymes utilise molecular oxygen, but of particular importance to oxygen sensing are the 2-oxoglutarate (2-OG) dependent dioxygenases (2-OGDs). Of these, Prolyl-hydroxylases have long been recognised to control the levels and function of Hypoxia Inducible Factor (HIF), a master transcriptional regulator in hypoxia, via their hydroxylase activity. However, recent studies are revealing that such dioxygenases are involved in almost all aspects of gene regulation, including chromatin organisation, transcription and translation.
Hypoxia—reduction in oxygen availability—plays key roles in both physiological and pathological processes. Given the importance of oxygen for cell and organism viability, mechanisms to sense and respond to hypoxia are in place. A variety of enzymes utilise molecular oxygen, but of particular importance to oxygen sensing are the 2-oxoglutarate (2-OG) dependent dioxygenases (2-OGDs). Of these, Prolyl-hydroxylases have long been recognised to control the levels and function of Hypoxia Inducible Factor (HIF), a master transcriptional regulator in hypoxia, via their hydroxylase activity. However, recent studies are revealing that dioxygenases are involved in almost all aspects of gene regulation, including chromatin organisation, transcription and translation. We highlight the relevance of HIF and 2-OGDs in the control of gene expression in response to hypoxia and their relevance to human biology and health. View Full-Text
Keywords: hypoxia; 2-OG dioxygenases; chromatin; transcription; translation; cancer hypoxia; 2-OG dioxygenases; chromatin; transcription; translation; cancer
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MDPI and ACS Style

Frost, J.; Frost, M.; Batie, M.; Jiang, H.; Rocha, S. Roles of HIF and 2-Oxoglutarate-Dependent Dioxygenases in Controlling Gene Expression in Hypoxia. Cancers 2021, 13, 350. https://doi.org/10.3390/cancers13020350

AMA Style

Frost J, Frost M, Batie M, Jiang H, Rocha S. Roles of HIF and 2-Oxoglutarate-Dependent Dioxygenases in Controlling Gene Expression in Hypoxia. Cancers. 2021; 13(2):350. https://doi.org/10.3390/cancers13020350

Chicago/Turabian Style

Frost, Julianty; Frost, Mark; Batie, Michael; Jiang, Hao; Rocha, Sonia. 2021. "Roles of HIF and 2-Oxoglutarate-Dependent Dioxygenases in Controlling Gene Expression in Hypoxia" Cancers 13, no. 2: 350. https://doi.org/10.3390/cancers13020350

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