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PRKAR1A and Thyroid Tumors
Review

Current Management of Bone Metastases from Differentiated Thyroid Cancer

Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Graduate School of Medical Sciences, Kanazawa University 13-1 Takara-machi, Kanazawa 920-8641, Japan
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Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editors: Fabio Medas and Pier Francesco Alesina
Cancers 2021, 13(17), 4429; https://doi.org/10.3390/cancers13174429
Received: 6 August 2021 / Revised: 21 August 2021 / Accepted: 24 August 2021 / Published: 2 September 2021
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in the Diagnosis and Treatment of Thyroid Carcinoma)
Patients with bone metastases (BMs) from differentiated thyroid carcinoma (DTC) can live longer than those with BMs from other cancers. BMs from DTC create destructive lesions and easily cause intractable pain and neurological symptoms, including paralysis. These symptoms related to BMs affect mortality directly and indirectly by hampering the application of systemic therapies. Therefore, long-term local control of BMs in patients with DTC is desired, especially in patients with single or a small number of metastases. Local treatments for BMs have recently become advanced and sophisticated in surgery, radiotherapy, and percutaneous procedures. These therapies, either alone or in combination with other treatments, can effectively improve, or prevent the deterioration of, the performance status and quality of life of patients with DTC-BM. Among local therapies, complete surgical resection and stereotactic radiosurgery are the mainstay for achieving long-term control of DTC-BM.
After the lung, the skeleton is the second most common site of distant metastases in differentiated thyroid carcinoma (DTC). Patients with osteolytic bone metastases (BMs) from thyroid carcinoma often have significantly reduced performance status and quality of life. Recent advancements in cancer therapy have improved overall survival in multiple cancer subtypes, including thyroid cancer. Therefore, long-term local control of thyroid BMs is desired, especially in patients with a single metastasis or oligometastases. Here, we reviewed the current management options for DTC-BMs and especially focused on local treatments for long-term local tumor control from an orthopedic tumor surgeon’s point of view. Metastasectomy and stereotactic radiosurgery can be performed either alone or in combination with radioiodine therapy and kinase inhibitors to cure skeletal lesions in selected patients. Percutaneous procedures have been developed in recent years, and they can also have a curative role in small BMs. Recent advancements in local therapies have the potential to provide not only long-term local tumor control but also a better prognosis. View Full-Text
Keywords: differentiated thyroid cancer; bone metastasis; metastasectomy; stereotactic radiosurgery differentiated thyroid cancer; bone metastasis; metastasectomy; stereotactic radiosurgery
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MDPI and ACS Style

Kato, S.; Demura, S.; Shinmura, K.; Yokogawa, N.; Shimizu, T.; Tsuchiya, H. Current Management of Bone Metastases from Differentiated Thyroid Cancer. Cancers 2021, 13, 4429. https://doi.org/10.3390/cancers13174429

AMA Style

Kato S, Demura S, Shinmura K, Yokogawa N, Shimizu T, Tsuchiya H. Current Management of Bone Metastases from Differentiated Thyroid Cancer. Cancers. 2021; 13(17):4429. https://doi.org/10.3390/cancers13174429

Chicago/Turabian Style

Kato, Satoshi, Satoru Demura, Kazuya Shinmura, Noriaki Yokogawa, Takaki Shimizu, and Hiroyuki Tsuchiya. 2021. "Current Management of Bone Metastases from Differentiated Thyroid Cancer" Cancers 13, no. 17: 4429. https://doi.org/10.3390/cancers13174429

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