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The Pathophysiology and the Therapeutic Potential of Cannabinoids in Prostate Cancer

1
The Pangenomics Lab, School of Science, RMIT University, Bundoora, VIC 3083, Australia
2
School of Health and Biomedical Sciences, RMIT University, Bundoora, VIC 3083, Australia
3
MGC Pharmaceuticals Limited, West Perth, WA 6005, Australia
4
The UWA Institute of Agriculture, The University of Western Australia, Perth, WA 6009, Australia
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editors: Marco Falasca and Mauro Maccarrone
Cancers 2021, 13(16), 4107; https://doi.org/10.3390/cancers13164107
Received: 7 June 2021 / Revised: 13 August 2021 / Accepted: 13 August 2021 / Published: 15 August 2021
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Cannabinoids and Cancer)
Prostate cancer, after lung cancer, is the leading cause of death among men. The incidence rate of prostate cancer varies worldwide between regions and population groups. Its incidence increases with age and is more likely to occur in older men. Although the pathophysiological mechanisms and the etiological factors of prostate cancer development are still poorly understood, there are several factors associated with the risk of developing the disease such as age, family history, lifestyle-related factors (e.g., smoking, diet), and testosterone levels. Cannabinoids are an emerging class of pharmacological molecules that may exert their therapeutic effect against different cancers, including those from the prostate. Several studies have shown that various agonists are able to target cannabinoid receptors exhibited on prostate cancer cells. This affects the release of pro-inflammatory cytokines and has impacts on cell proliferation, cell apoptosis and necroptosis; consequently leading to the development of cancerous cells.
Prostate cancer is the second most frequently occurring cancer diagnosed among males. Recent preclinical evidence implicates cannabinoids as powerful regulators of cell growth and differentiation. In this review, we focused on studies that demonstrated anticancer effects of cannabinoids and their possible mechanisms of action in prostate cancer. Besides the palliative effects of cannabinoids, research from the past two decades has demonstrated their promising potential as antitumor agents in a wide variety of cancers. This analysis may provide pharmacological insights into the selection of specific cannabinoids for the development of antitumor drugs for the treatment of prostate cancer. View Full-Text
Keywords: prostate cancer; cannabis; cannabinoids; cannabinoid receptors; cancer prostate cancer; cannabis; cannabinoids; cannabinoid receptors; cancer
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MDPI and ACS Style

Singh, K.; Nassar, N.; Bachari, A.; Schanknecht, E.; Telukutla, S.; Zomer, R.; Piva, T.J.; Mantri, N. The Pathophysiology and the Therapeutic Potential of Cannabinoids in Prostate Cancer. Cancers 2021, 13, 4107. https://doi.org/10.3390/cancers13164107

AMA Style

Singh K, Nassar N, Bachari A, Schanknecht E, Telukutla S, Zomer R, Piva TJ, Mantri N. The Pathophysiology and the Therapeutic Potential of Cannabinoids in Prostate Cancer. Cancers. 2021; 13(16):4107. https://doi.org/10.3390/cancers13164107

Chicago/Turabian Style

Singh, Kanika, Nazim Nassar, Ava Bachari, Ellen Schanknecht, Srinivasareddy Telukutla, Roby Zomer, Terrence J. Piva, and Nitin Mantri. 2021. "The Pathophysiology and the Therapeutic Potential of Cannabinoids in Prostate Cancer" Cancers 13, no. 16: 4107. https://doi.org/10.3390/cancers13164107

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