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Cancer Nanopharmaceuticals: Physicochemical Characterization and In Vitro/In Vivo Applications

A Systematic Review of Biosynthesized Metallic Nanoparticles as a Promising Anti-Cancer-Strategy

Plant Cell and Tissue Culture Lab, Department of Biotechnology, Quaid-i-Azam University, Islamabad 45320, Pakistan
Proteomics Lab, School of Biochemistry & Biotechnology, University of the Punjab, Lahore 54590, Pakistan
Media and Production Group, Centre for Media and Communication Studies, University of Gujrat, Gujrat 50700, Pakistan
Nanobiotechnology Group, Department of Biotechnology, Mirpur University of Science and Technology, Mirpur 10250, Pakistan
Stem Cell & Regenerative Medicine Lab, National Centre of Excellence in Molecular Biology, University of Punjab, 87-West Canal Bank Road, Lahore 53700, Pakistan
Department of Biotechnology, Institute of Integrative Biosciences, Peshawar 25100, Pakistan
Laboratoire de Biologie des Ligneux et des Grandes Cultures (LBLGC), INRA USC1328 Université ď Orléans, CEDEX 2, 45067 Orléans, France
Centro Tecnológico de la Carne de Galicia, Avd. Galicia no 4, Parque Tecnológico de Galicia, San Cibrao das Viñas, 32900 Ourense, Spain
Área de Tecnología de los Alimentos, Facultad de Ciencias de Ourense, Universidad de Vigo, 32004 Ourense, Spain
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editors: Maciej Wnuk and Anna Lewinska
Cancers 2021, 13(11), 2818;
Received: 9 May 2021 / Revised: 29 May 2021 / Accepted: 30 May 2021 / Published: 5 June 2021
Cancer is one of the major public health burdens in the world. To date, various conventional cancer therapies have been used, but these therapies are less effective and have severe side effects. Currently, in order to find a better cure for cancer, researchers have tried to explore new approaches with minimal toxicity and fewer side effects. In recent years, nanotechnology has been widely used in diseases management and holds a promising future in curing complex incurable diseases, in particular cancer. Biosynthesized metallic nanoparticles are eco-friendly and biocompatible, and can be used in cancer diagnostics, novel treatments, and drug delivery systems. This review gives an overview of the recent advancements in the biosynthesis of metallic nanoparticles (silver (Ag), gold (Au), zinc (Zn) and copper (Cu)) and their possible anti-cancer activities, with particular emphasis on the mechanisms of action, and future research prospects of nano-therapeutics are also discussed.
Cancer is one of the foremost causes of death worldwide. Cancer develops because of mutation in genes that regulate normal cell cycle and cell division, thereby resulting in uncontrolled division and proliferation of cells. Various drugs have been used to treat cancer thus far; however, conventional chemotherapeutic drugs have lower bioavailability, rapid renal clearance, unequal delivery, and severe side effects. In the recent years, nanotechnology has flourished rapidly and has a multitude of applications in the biomedical field. Bio-mediated nanoparticles (NPs) are cost effective, safe, and biocompatible and have got substantial attention from researchers around the globe. Due to their safe profile and fewer side effects, these nanoscale materials offer a promising cure for cancer. Currently, various metallic NPs have been designed to cure or diagnose cancer; among these, silver (Ag), gold (Au), zinc (Zn) and copper (Cu) are the leading anti-cancer NPs. The anticancer potential of these NPs is attributed to the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in cellular compartments that eventually leads to activation of autophagic, apoptotic and necrotic death pathways. In this review, we summarized the recent advancements in the biosynthesis of Ag, Au, Zn and Cu NPs with emphasis on their mechanism of action. Moreover, nanotoxicity, as well as the future prospects and opportunities of nano-therapeutics, are also highlighted. View Full-Text
Keywords: cancer; cancer development; green synthesis; metallic NPs; anti-cancer effect cancer; cancer development; green synthesis; metallic NPs; anti-cancer effect
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MDPI and ACS Style

Andleeb, A.; Andleeb, A.; Asghar, S.; Zaman, G.; Tariq, M.; Mehmood, A.; Nadeem, M.; Hano, C.; Lorenzo, J.M.; Abbasi, B.H. A Systematic Review of Biosynthesized Metallic Nanoparticles as a Promising Anti-Cancer-Strategy. Cancers 2021, 13, 2818.

AMA Style

Andleeb A, Andleeb A, Asghar S, Zaman G, Tariq M, Mehmood A, Nadeem M, Hano C, Lorenzo JM, Abbasi BH. A Systematic Review of Biosynthesized Metallic Nanoparticles as a Promising Anti-Cancer-Strategy. Cancers. 2021; 13(11):2818.

Chicago/Turabian Style

Andleeb, Anisa, Aneeta Andleeb, Salman Asghar, Gouhar Zaman, Muhammad Tariq, Azra Mehmood, Muhammad Nadeem, Christophe Hano, Jose M. Lorenzo, and Bilal H. Abbasi. 2021. "A Systematic Review of Biosynthesized Metallic Nanoparticles as a Promising Anti-Cancer-Strategy" Cancers 13, no. 11: 2818.

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