Neuroendocrine Lung Cancer Mouse Models: An Overview
Molecular Oncology Unit (CIEMAT), Institute of Biomedical Research, University Hospital “12 de Octubre”, CIBERONC, 28040 Madrid, Spain
Biomedical Applications and Pharmacokinetics Unit (CIEMAT), 28040 Madrid, Spain
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 20 November 2020 / Revised: 18 December 2020 / Accepted: 19 December 2020 / Published: 22 December 2020
Neuroendocrine lung tumors are a heterogeneous group of malignancies that share a common neuroendocrine nature. They range from low- and intermediate-grade typical and atypical carcinoma, to the highly malignant large cell neuroendocrine lung carcinoma and small cell carcinoma, with marked differences in incidences and prognosis. This review delineates the current knowledge of the genetic landscape of the human tumors, its influence in the development of genetically engineered mouse models (GEMMs) and the molecular imaging tools available to detect and monitor these diseases. While small cell lung carcinoma is one of the diseases best represented by GEMMs, there is a worrying lack of animal models for the other members of the group, these being understudied diseases. Regardless of the incidence and material available, they all are in urgent need of effective therapies.