Allogeneic (allo) hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT) is the only curative treatment option for patients suffering from chemotherapy-refractory or relapsed hematological malignancies. The occurrence of morbidity and mortality after allo-HCT is still high. This is partly correlated with the immunological recovery of the T cell subsets, of which the dynamics and relations to complications are still poorly understood. Detailed information on T cell subset recovery is crucial to provide tools for better prediction and modulation of adverse events. Here, we review the current knowledge regarding CD4+
T cells, γδ T cells, iNKT cells, Treg cells, MAIT cells and naive and memory T cell reconstitution, as well as their relations to outcome, considering different cell sources and immunosuppressive therapies. We conclude that the T cell subsets reconstitute in different ways and are associated with distinct adverse and beneficial events; however, adequate reconstitution of all the subsets is associated with better overall survival. Although the exact mechanisms involved in the reconstitution of each T cell subset and their associations with allo-HCT outcome need to be further elucidated, the data and suggestions presented here point towards the development of individualized approaches to improve their reconstitution. This includes the modulation of immunotherapeutic interventions based on more detailed immune monitoring, aiming to improve overall survival changes.
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License
which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited