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Article

Pre-Treatment T2-WI Based Radiomics Features for Prediction of Locally Advanced Rectal Cancer Non-Response to Neoadjuvant Chemoradiotherapy: A Preliminary Study

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Department of Radiology, “George Emil Palade” University of Medicine, Pharmacy, Science and Technology of Târgu Mureș, 540139 Târgu Mureș, Romania
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Department of Radiology, Emergency Clinical County Hospital Cluj-Napoca, 400006 Cluj-Napoca, Romania
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Department of Radiology, “Iuliu Hațieganu” University of Medicine and Pharmacy Cluj-Napoca, 400012 Cluj-Napoca, Romania
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Department of Medical Imaging, “Iuliu Hațieganu” University of Medicine and Pharmacy Cluj-Napoca, 400012 Cluj-Napoca, Romania
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Department of Radiology, Regional Institute of Gastroenterology and Hepatology “Prof. Dr. Octavian Fodor”, 400158 Cluj-Napoca, Romania
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Department of Surgery, “Iuliu Hațieganu” University of Medicine and Pharmacy Cluj-Napoca, 400012 Cluj-Napoca, Romania
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Department of Surgery, Regional Institute of Gastroenterology and Hepatology “Prof. Dr. Octavian Fodor”, 400158 Cluj-Napoca, Romania
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Department of Radiology, Emergency Clinical County Hospital Târgu Mureș, 540136 Târgu Mureș, Romania
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Cancers 2020, 12(7), 1894; https://doi.org/10.3390/cancers12071894
Received: 14 May 2020 / Revised: 30 June 2020 / Accepted: 9 July 2020 / Published: 14 July 2020
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Radiomics and Cancers)
Locally advanced rectal cancer (LARC) response to neoadjuvant chemoradiotherapy (nCRT) is very heterogeneous and up to 30% of patients are considered non-responders, presenting no tumor regression after nCRT. This study aimed to determine the ability of pre-treatment T2-weighted based radiomics features to predict LARC non-responders. A total of 67 LARC patients who underwent a pre-treatment MRI followed by nCRT and total mesorectal excision were assigned into training (n = 44) and validation (n = 23) groups. In both datasets, the patients were categorized according to the Ryan tumor regression grade (TRG) system into non-responders (TRG = 3) and responders (TRG 1 and 2). We extracted 960 radiomic features/patient from pre-treatment T2-weighted images. After a three-step feature selection process, including LASSO regression analysis, we built a radiomics score with seven radiomics features. This score was significantly higher among non-responders in both training and validation sets (p < 0.001 and p = 0.03) and it showed good predictive performance for LARC non-response, achieving an area under the curve (AUC) = 0.94 (95% CI: 0.82–0.99) in the training set and AUC = 0.80 (95% CI: 0.58–0.94) in the validation group. The multivariate analysis identified the radiomics score as an independent predictor for the tumor non-response (OR = 6.52, 95% CI: 1.87–22.72). Our results indicate that MRI radiomics features could be considered as potential imaging biomarkers for early prediction of LARC non-response to neoadjuvant treatment. View Full-Text
Keywords: locally advanced rectal cancer; radiomics; neo-adjuvant chemoradiotherapy; non-responders; magnetic resonance imaging locally advanced rectal cancer; radiomics; neo-adjuvant chemoradiotherapy; non-responders; magnetic resonance imaging
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MDPI and ACS Style

Petresc, B.; Lebovici, A.; Caraiani, C.; Feier, D.S.; Graur, F.; Buruian, M.M. Pre-Treatment T2-WI Based Radiomics Features for Prediction of Locally Advanced Rectal Cancer Non-Response to Neoadjuvant Chemoradiotherapy: A Preliminary Study. Cancers 2020, 12, 1894. https://doi.org/10.3390/cancers12071894

AMA Style

Petresc B, Lebovici A, Caraiani C, Feier DS, Graur F, Buruian MM. Pre-Treatment T2-WI Based Radiomics Features for Prediction of Locally Advanced Rectal Cancer Non-Response to Neoadjuvant Chemoradiotherapy: A Preliminary Study. Cancers. 2020; 12(7):1894. https://doi.org/10.3390/cancers12071894

Chicago/Turabian Style

Petresc, Bianca, Andrei Lebovici, Cosmin Caraiani, Diana S. Feier, Florin Graur, and Mircea M. Buruian 2020. "Pre-Treatment T2-WI Based Radiomics Features for Prediction of Locally Advanced Rectal Cancer Non-Response to Neoadjuvant Chemoradiotherapy: A Preliminary Study" Cancers 12, no. 7: 1894. https://doi.org/10.3390/cancers12071894

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