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The Role of Cancer-Associated Fibroblasts in Prostate Cancer Tumorigenesis

1
Department for BioMedical Research, Urology Research Laboratory, University of Bern, 3008 Bern, Switzerland
2
Department of Urology, Inselspital, Bern University Hospital, 3008 Bern, Switzerland
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
These authors contribute equally to this work.
Cancers 2020, 12(7), 1887; https://doi.org/10.3390/cancers12071887
Received: 17 June 2020 / Revised: 10 July 2020 / Accepted: 10 July 2020 / Published: 13 July 2020
(This article belongs to the Section Tumor Microenvironment)
Tumors strongly depend on their surrounding tumor microenvironment (TME) for growth and progression, since stromal elements are required to generate the optimal conditions for cancer cell proliferation, invasion, and possibly metastasis. Prostate cancer (PCa), though easily curable during primary stages, represents a clinical challenge in advanced stages because of the acquisition of resistance to anti-cancer treatments, especially androgen-deprivation therapies (ADT), which possibly lead to uncurable metastases such as those affecting the bone. An increasing number of studies is giving evidence that prostate TME components, especially cancer-associated fibroblasts (CAFs), which are the most abundant cell type, play a causal role in PCa since the very early disease stages, influencing therapy resistance and metastatic progression. This is highlighted by the prognostic value of the analysis of stromal markers, which may predict disease recurrence and metastasis. However, further investigations on the molecular mechanisms of tumor–stroma interactions are still needed to develop novel therapeutic approaches targeting stromal components. In this review, we report the current knowledge of the characteristics and functions of the stroma in prostate tumorigenesis, including relevant discussion of normal prostate homeostasis, chronic inflammatory conditions, pre-neoplastic lesions, and primary and metastatic tumors. Specifically, we focus on the role of CAFs, to point out their prognostic and therapeutic potential in PCa. View Full-Text
Keywords: prostate cancer; reactive stroma; tumor microenvironment; bone metastasis; cancer associated fibroblasts prostate cancer; reactive stroma; tumor microenvironment; bone metastasis; cancer associated fibroblasts
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MDPI and ACS Style

Bonollo, F.; Thalmann, G.N.; Kruithof-de Julio, M.; Karkampouna, S. The Role of Cancer-Associated Fibroblasts in Prostate Cancer Tumorigenesis. Cancers 2020, 12, 1887. https://doi.org/10.3390/cancers12071887

AMA Style

Bonollo F, Thalmann GN, Kruithof-de Julio M, Karkampouna S. The Role of Cancer-Associated Fibroblasts in Prostate Cancer Tumorigenesis. Cancers. 2020; 12(7):1887. https://doi.org/10.3390/cancers12071887

Chicago/Turabian Style

Bonollo, Francesco, George N. Thalmann, Marianna Kruithof-de Julio, and Sofia Karkampouna. 2020. "The Role of Cancer-Associated Fibroblasts in Prostate Cancer Tumorigenesis" Cancers 12, no. 7: 1887. https://doi.org/10.3390/cancers12071887

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