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Mycobacteria-Based Vaccines as Immunotherapy for Non-urological Cancers

1
Mycobacteria Research Laboratory, Department of Genetics and Microbiology, Faculty of Biosciences, Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona, Bellaterra, 08193 Barcelona, Spain
2
Center for Cellular Immunotherapies and, Division of Pulmonary, Allergy, and Critical Care, Department of Medicine, Perelman School of Medicine, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA 19104, USA
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Cancers 2020, 12(7), 1802; https://doi.org/10.3390/cancers12071802
Received: 2 June 2020 / Revised: 30 June 2020 / Accepted: 2 July 2020 / Published: 5 July 2020
(This article belongs to the Section Cancer Immunology and Immunotherapy)
The arsenal against different types of cancers has increased impressively in the last decade. The detailed knowledge of the tumor microenvironment enables it to be manipulated in order to help the immune system fight against tumor cells by using specific checkpoint inhibitors, cell-based treatments, targeted antibodies, and immune stimulants. In fact, it is widely known that the first immunotherapeutic tools as immune stimulants for cancer treatment were bacteria and still are; specifically, the use of Mycobacterium bovis bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG) continues to be the treatment of choice for preventing cancer recurrence and progression in non-invasive bladder cancer. BCG and also other mycobacteria or their components are currently under study for the immunotherapeutic treatment of different malignancies. This review focuses on the preclinical and clinical assays using mycobacteria to treat non-urological cancers, providing a wide knowledge of the beneficial applications of these microorganisms to manipulate the tumor microenvironment aiming at tumor clearance. View Full-Text
Keywords: BCG; non-tuberculous mycobacteria; adjuvant; immunotherapy; mycobacteria antigens BCG; non-tuberculous mycobacteria; adjuvant; immunotherapy; mycobacteria antigens
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Noguera-Ortega, E.; Guallar-Garrido, S.; Julián, E. Mycobacteria-Based Vaccines as Immunotherapy for Non-urological Cancers. Cancers 2020, 12, 1802.

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