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How and Why Are Cancers Acidic? Carbonic Anhydrase IX and the Homeostatic Control of Tumour Extracellular pH
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The Expression of Carbonic Anhydrases II, IX and XII in Brain Tumors

1
The Hospital for Sick Children, Arthur and Sonia Labatt Brain Tumor Research Center, Toronto, ON M5G 0A4, Canada
2
Unit of Neurosurgery, Tampere University Hospital, FI-33520 Tampere, Finland
3
The Hospital for Sick Children, Division of Hematology and Oncology, Toronto, ON M5G 0A4, Canada
4
Faculty of Medicine and Health Technology, Tampere University, FI-33520 Tampere, Finland
5
Fimlab Laboratories Ltd., FI-33520 Tampere, Finland
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Cancers 2020, 12(7), 1723; https://doi.org/10.3390/cancers12071723
Received: 28 May 2020 / Revised: 25 June 2020 / Accepted: 28 June 2020 / Published: 29 June 2020
(This article belongs to the Special Issue New Insights into Tumour pH Regulation)
Carbonic anhydrases (CAs) are zinc-containing metalloenzymes that participate in the regulation of pH homeostasis in addition to many other important physiological functions. Importantly, CAs have been associated with neoplastic processes and cancer. Brain tumors represent a heterogeneous group of diseases with a frequently dismal prognosis, and new treatment options are urgently needed. In this review article, we summarize the previously published literature about CAs in brain tumors, especially on CA II and hypoxia-inducible CA IX and CA XII. We review here their role in tumorigenesis and potential value in predicting prognosis of brain tumors, including astrocytomas, oligodendrogliomas, ependymomas, medulloblastomas, meningiomas, and craniopharyngiomas. We also introduce both already completed and ongoing studies focusing on CA inhibition as a potential anti-cancer strategy. View Full-Text
Keywords: carbonic anhydrase; brain tumor; glioma; astrocytoma; oligodendroglioma; medulloblastoma; prognosticator; carbonic anhydrase inhibitor carbonic anhydrase; brain tumor; glioma; astrocytoma; oligodendroglioma; medulloblastoma; prognosticator; carbonic anhydrase inhibitor
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MDPI and ACS Style

Haapasalo, J.; Nordfors, K.; Haapasalo, H.; Parkkila, S. The Expression of Carbonic Anhydrases II, IX and XII in Brain Tumors. Cancers 2020, 12, 1723.

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