Next Article in Journal
Multiparametric Analysis of Longitudinal Quantitative MRI Data to Identify Distinct Tumor Habitats in Preclinical Models of Breast Cancer
Previous Article in Journal
Endometriosis-Associated Ovarian Cancer: The Origin and Targeted Therapy
Open AccessReview

Integrating the Tumor Microenvironment into Cancer Therapy

Department of Pathology, Medical School, University of Valencia—INCLIVA Biomedical Health Research Institute, 46010 Valencia, Spain
Low Prevalence Tumors, Centro de investigación biomédica en red de cáncer (CIBERONC), Instituto de Salud Carlos III, 28029 Madrid, Spain
Department of Oncology, Hospital Universitario Virgen Macarena, 41009 Seville, Spain
Department of Pathology, Hospital de Tortosa Verge de la Cinta, Catalan Institute of Health, Institut d’Investigació Sanitària Pere Virgili (IISPV), 43500 Tortosa, Spain
Department of Morphological Science, Medical School, Rovira i Virgili University, 43201 Reus, Spain
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
These authors contributed equally to this work.
Cancers 2020, 12(6), 1677;
Received: 18 May 2020 / Revised: 11 June 2020 / Accepted: 18 June 2020 / Published: 24 June 2020
(This article belongs to the Section Tumor Microenvironment)
Tumor progression is mediated by reciprocal interaction between tumor cells and their surrounding tumor microenvironment (TME), which among other factors encompasses the extracellular milieu, immune cells, fibroblasts, and the vascular system. However, the complexity of cancer goes beyond the local interaction of tumor cells with their microenvironment. We are on the path to understanding cancer from a systemic viewpoint where the host macroenvironment also plays a crucial role in determining tumor progression. Indeed, growing evidence is emerging on the impact of the gut microbiota, metabolism, biomechanics, and the neuroimmunological axis on cancer. Thus, external factors capable of influencing the entire body system, such as emotional stress, surgery, or psychosocial factors, must be taken into consideration for enhanced management and treatment of cancer patients. In this article, we review prognostic and predictive biomarkers, as well as their potential evaluation and quantitative analysis. Our overarching aim is to open up new fields of study and intervention possibilities, within the framework of an integral vision of cancer as a functional tissue with the capacity to respond to different non-cytotoxic factors, hormonal, immunological, and mechanical forces, and others inducing stroma and tumor reprogramming. View Full-Text
Keywords: immune therapy; metabolism; microbiota; biomarker discovery; prognostic tools; vitamin D3; stromal reprogramming; mitochondria; mechanotransduction; metformin immune therapy; metabolism; microbiota; biomarker discovery; prognostic tools; vitamin D3; stromal reprogramming; mitochondria; mechanotransduction; metformin
Show Figures

Figure 1

MDPI and ACS Style

Sanegre, S.; Lucantoni, F.; Burgos-Panadero, R.; de La Cruz-Merino, L.; Noguera, R.; Álvaro Naranjo, T. Integrating the Tumor Microenvironment into Cancer Therapy. Cancers 2020, 12, 1677.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats
Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Article Access Map by Country/Region

Search more from Scilit
Back to TopTop