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Article

Dual Targeting of BRAF and mTOR Signaling in Melanoma Cells with Pyridinyl Imidazole Compounds

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Faculty of Medicine, Masaryk University, Kamenice 753/5, 625 00 Brno, Czech Republic
2
International Clinical Research Center, St. Anne’s University Hospital Brno, Pekařská 664/53, 656 91 Brno, Czech Republic
3
Institute of Physical Engineering, Faculty of Mechanical Engineering, Brno University of Technology, Technická 2896/2, 616 69 Brno, Czech Republic
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CEITEC—Central European Institute of Technology, Brno University of Technology, Purkyňova 656/123, 612 00 Brno, Czech Republic
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National Centre for Biomolecular Research, Masaryk University, Kamenice 753/5, 625 00 Brno, Czech Republic
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CEITEC—Central European Institute of Technology, Masaryk University, Kamenice 753/5, 625 00 Brno, Czech Republic
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Centre for Cancer Cell Reprogramming, Faculty of Medicine, University of Oslo, Montebello, N-0379 Oslo, Norway
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Department of Molecular Cell Biology, Institute for Cancer Research, Oslo University Hospital, Montebello, N-0379 Oslo, Norway
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Cancers 2020, 12(6), 1516; https://doi.org/10.3390/cancers12061516
Received: 29 February 2020 / Revised: 4 June 2020 / Accepted: 5 June 2020 / Published: 10 June 2020
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Targeted Therapies for Melanoma)
BRAF inhibitors can delay the progression of metastatic melanoma, but resistance usually emerges, leading to relapse. Drugs simultaneously targeting two or more pathways essential for cancer growth could slow or prevent the development of resistant clones. Here, we identified pyridinyl imidazole compounds SB202190, SB203580, and SB590885 as dual inhibitors of critical proliferative pathways in human melanoma cells bearing the V600E activating mutation of BRAF kinase. We found that the drugs simultaneously disrupt the BRAF V600E-driven extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) activity and the mechanistic target of rapamycin complex 1 (mTORC1) signaling in melanoma cells. Pyridinyl imidazole compounds directly inhibit BRAF V600E kinase. Moreover, they interfere with the endolysosomal compartment, promoting the accumulation of large acidic vacuole-like vesicles and dynamic changes in mTOR signaling. A transient increase in mTORC1 activity is followed by the enrichment of the Ragulator complex protein p18/LAMTOR1 at contact sites of large vesicles and delocalization of mTOR from the lysosomes. The induced disruption of the endolysosomal pathway not only disrupts mTORC1 signaling, but also renders melanoma cells sensitive to endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress. Our findings identify new activities of pharmacologically relevant small molecule compounds and provide a biological rationale for the development of anti-melanoma therapeutics based on the pyridinyl imidazole core. View Full-Text
Keywords: melanoma; BRAF V600E; BRAF inhibitor; small molecule drug; pyridinyl imidazole; endosome; lysosome; mTORC1; ER stress melanoma; BRAF V600E; BRAF inhibitor; small molecule drug; pyridinyl imidazole; endosome; lysosome; mTORC1; ER stress
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MDPI and ACS Style

Palušová, V.; Renzová, T.; Verlande, A.; Vaclová, T.; Medková, M.; Cetlová, L.; Sedláčková, M.; Hříbková, H.; Slaninová, I.; Krutá, M.; Rotrekl, V.; Uhlířová, H.; Křížová, A.; Chmelík, R.; Veselý, P.; Krafčíková, M.; Trantírek, L.; Schink, K.O.; Uldrijan, S. Dual Targeting of BRAF and mTOR Signaling in Melanoma Cells with Pyridinyl Imidazole Compounds. Cancers 2020, 12, 1516. https://doi.org/10.3390/cancers12061516

AMA Style

Palušová V, Renzová T, Verlande A, Vaclová T, Medková M, Cetlová L, Sedláčková M, Hříbková H, Slaninová I, Krutá M, Rotrekl V, Uhlířová H, Křížová A, Chmelík R, Veselý P, Krafčíková M, Trantírek L, Schink KO, Uldrijan S. Dual Targeting of BRAF and mTOR Signaling in Melanoma Cells with Pyridinyl Imidazole Compounds. Cancers. 2020; 12(6):1516. https://doi.org/10.3390/cancers12061516

Chicago/Turabian Style

Palušová, Veronika, Tereza Renzová, Amandine Verlande, Tereza Vaclová, Michaela Medková, Linda Cetlová, Miroslava Sedláčková, Hana Hříbková, Iva Slaninová, Miriama Krutá, Vladimír Rotrekl, Hana Uhlířová, Aneta Křížová, Radim Chmelík, Pavel Veselý, Michaela Krafčíková, Lukáš Trantírek, Kay O. Schink, and Stjepan Uldrijan. 2020. "Dual Targeting of BRAF and mTOR Signaling in Melanoma Cells with Pyridinyl Imidazole Compounds" Cancers 12, no. 6: 1516. https://doi.org/10.3390/cancers12061516

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