Next Article in Journal
A Fluorescence-Based Wireless Capsule Endoscopy System for Detecting Colorectal Cancer
Previous Article in Journal
Tumor Ulceration, Reduced Infiltration of CD8-Lymphocytes, High Neutrophil-to-CD8-Lymphocyte Ratio and Absence of MC Virus are Negative Prognostic Markers for Patients with Merkel Cell Carcinoma
Open AccessReview

Immunotherapy in Metastatic Colorectal Cancer: Could the Latest Developments Hold the Key to Improving Patient Survival?

1
Department of Medical Oncology, School of Medicine, University of Crete, 71003 Heraklion, Greece
2
Laboratory of Translational Oncology, School of Medicine, University of Crete, 71003 Heraklion, Greece
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Cancers 2020, 12(4), 889; https://doi.org/10.3390/cancers12040889
Received: 27 February 2020 / Revised: 1 April 2020 / Accepted: 3 April 2020 / Published: 6 April 2020
Immunotherapy has considerably increased the number of anticancer agents in many tumor types including metastatic colorectal cancer (mCRC). Anti-PD-1 (programmed death 1) and cytotoxic T-lymphocyte–associated antigen 4 (CTLA-4) immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICI) have been shown to benefit the mCRC patients with mismatch repair deficiency (dMMR) or high microsatellite instability (MSI-H). However, ICI is not effective in mismatch repair proficient (pMMR) colorectal tumors, which constitute a large population of patients. Several clinical trials evaluating the efficacy of immunotherapy combined with chemotherapy, radiation therapy, or other agents are currently ongoing to extend the benefit of immunotherapy to pMMR mCRC cases. In dMMR patients, MSI testing through immunohistochemistry and/or polymerase chain reaction can be used to identify patients that will benefit from immunotherapy. Next-generation sequencing has the ability to detect MSI-H using a low amount of nucleic acids and its application in clinical practice is currently being explored. Preliminary data suggest that radiomics is capable of discriminating MSI from microsatellite stable mCRC and may play a role as an imaging biomarker in the future. Tumor mutational burden, neoantigen burden, tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes, immunoscore, and gastrointestinal microbiome are promising biomarkers that require further investigation and validation. View Full-Text
Keywords: metastatic colorectal cancer; immunotherapy; immune checkpoint inhibitors; biomarkers metastatic colorectal cancer; immunotherapy; immune checkpoint inhibitors; biomarkers
Show Figures

Figure 1

MDPI and ACS Style

Damilakis, E.; Mavroudis, D.; Sfakianaki, M.; Souglakos, J. Immunotherapy in Metastatic Colorectal Cancer: Could the Latest Developments Hold the Key to Improving Patient Survival? Cancers 2020, 12, 889.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats
Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Article Access Map by Country/Region

1
Search more from Scilit
 
Search
Back to TopTop