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Open AccessReview

The Current Status of Immune Checkpoint Inhibitors in Neuro-Oncology: A Systematic Review

1
Department of Medical Oncology, University of Groningen, University Medical Center Groningen, 9700 RB Groningen, The Netherlands
2
Department of Medical Oncology, Cancer Center Amsterdam, Amsterdam University Medical Centers, location VUmc, 1007 MB Amsterdam, The Netherlands
3
Department of Neurology, University of Groningen, University Medical Center Groningen, 9700 RB Groningen, The Netherlands
4
Department of Neurology, Cancer Center Amsterdam, Amsterdam University Medical Centers, location VUmc, 1007 MB Amsterdam, The Netherlands
5
University Library, Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam, 1007 MB Amsterdam, The Netherlands
6
Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, Amsterdam University Medical Centers, location VUmc, 1007 MB Amsterdam, The Netherlands
7
Department of Medical Oncology, Radboud University Medical Center, 6500 HB Nijmegen, The Netherlands
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Cancers 2020, 12(3), 586; https://doi.org/10.3390/cancers12030586
Received: 13 February 2020 / Revised: 1 March 2020 / Accepted: 2 March 2020 / Published: 4 March 2020
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Recent Advances in Glioblastoma)
The introduction of immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICI), as a novel treatment modality, has transformed the field of oncology with unprecedented successes. However, the efficacy of ICI for patients with glioblastoma or brain metastases (BMs) from any tumor type is under debate. Therefore, we systematically reviewed current literature on the use of ICI in patients with glioblastoma and BMs. Prospective and retrospective studies evaluating the efficacy and survival outcomes of ICI in patients with glioblastoma or BMs, and published between 2006 and November 2019, were considered. A total of 88 studies were identified (n = 8 in glioblastoma and n = 80 in BMs). In glioblastoma, median progression-free (PFS) and overall survival (OS) of all studies were 2.1 and 7.3 months, respectively. In patients with BMs, intracranial responses have been reported in studies with melanoma and non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC). The median intracranial and total PFS in these studies were 2.7 and 3.0 months, respectively. The median OS in all studies for patients with brain BMs was 8.0 months. To date, ICI demonstrate limited efficacy in patients with glioblastoma or BMs. Future research should focus on increasing the local and systemic immunological responses in these patients. View Full-Text
Keywords: Immune checkpoint inhibitors; glioblastoma; brain metastases; brain tumor; systematic review Immune checkpoint inhibitors; glioblastoma; brain metastases; brain tumor; systematic review
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MDPI and ACS Style

Brahm, C.G.; van Linde, M.E.; Enting, R.H.; Schuur, M.; Otten, R.H.J.; Heymans, M.W.; Verheul, H.M.W.; Walenkamp, A.M.E. The Current Status of Immune Checkpoint Inhibitors in Neuro-Oncology: A Systematic Review. Cancers 2020, 12, 586. https://doi.org/10.3390/cancers12030586

AMA Style

Brahm CG, van Linde ME, Enting RH, Schuur M, Otten RHJ, Heymans MW, Verheul HMW, Walenkamp AME. The Current Status of Immune Checkpoint Inhibitors in Neuro-Oncology: A Systematic Review. Cancers. 2020; 12(3):586. https://doi.org/10.3390/cancers12030586

Chicago/Turabian Style

Brahm, Cyrillo G.; van Linde, Myra E.; Enting, Roelien H.; Schuur, Maaike; Otten, René H.J.; Heymans, Martijn W.; Verheul, Henk M.W.; Walenkamp, Annemiek M.E. 2020. "The Current Status of Immune Checkpoint Inhibitors in Neuro-Oncology: A Systematic Review" Cancers 12, no. 3: 586. https://doi.org/10.3390/cancers12030586

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